Medicinal benefits and scientific justification of Commiphora mukul (Muqil): A review
Commiphora mukul (Muqil or Guggul), oleo-gum, has been in use for thousands of years as a medicine in Unani and Ayurvedic medicinal systems. It was primarily used for swellings, inflammation, piles, arthritis and urinary disorders. Among its various types Muqil-I-Arzaq, a gum, having reddish hue is considered to be the best form of Muqil for medicinal purposes. It has been revealed to inhibit the nuclear factor-kb, a regulator of inflammatory response, and act as a potent antagonist to the receptors of androgens, mineralocorticoides, and glucocorticoides. Muqil is a versatile herb with diverse medicinal benefits which demand scientific validation. A coherent review of properties, medicinal benefits, traditional uses and scientific studies of Muqil, along with the overall processes involved from collection to consumption is judiciously described in this paper. The aim of this review is to provide a base for multiple research works, validating Commiphora mukul in different chronic ailments.
keywords: Commiphora mukul, Inflammation, Muqil, Nuclear factor-KB, Unani
2. Anonymous. Commiphora wightii. Wikipedia. Cited on 2019 Dec 31. http//en.wikipedia.org
3. Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian medicinal plants. 2nd ed. Delhi: Periodical expert book agency; ©2012. Vol I. p. 168-170, 526-528.
4. Khare CP. Indian medicinal plants, An Illustrated Dictionary. New York: Springer Science + business media, LLC; 2007: pp. 32, 33, 79, 101, 238, 239, 263, 653, 654.
5. Betar ZA. Al Jami‘al Mufarridāt al-Adviya wal Aghzia. New Delhi: CCRUM; 2003. Vol IV. pp. 256,257,354,355,436-439.
6. Pullaiah T. Encyclopedia of world medicinal plants. New Delhi: Regency publications; © 2006. Vol II. p. 624.
7. Sarup P, Bala S, Kamboj S. Pharmacology and Phytochemistry of Oleo-Gum resin of Commiphora wightii (Guggulu). Scientifica. 2015; 2015:138039. [PubMed]
8. Razi ABZ. Kitābul Hāwī (Urdu translation). New Delhi: CCRUM; 2002. Part XXI. pp. 74, 75, 169, 170.
9. Gokhale SB, Kokate CK, Purohit AP. A text book of pharmacognosy. 38th ed. Pune: Nirali Prakashan; 2017. pp. 86, 87, 130, 131.
10. Baghdadi MAH. Kitābul Mukhtārāt Fil-Tib (Urdu translation). New Delhi: CCRUM; 2005. Vol II. pp. 64, 118, 184, 188, 189, 207, 282.
11. Sina SR. Alqanūn Fil-Tib (Urdu translation by Ghulam Hasnain Kantūri). New Delhi: Ejaz publishing house; 2010. Vol II. p. 387, 409.
12. Duke JA, Godwin M, duCellier J, Duke PK. Hand book of Medicinal Herbs. 2nd ed. Florida: CRC Press. ©2002. pp. 14, 95, 96, 271, 272, 360.
13. Rushd AWM. Kitābul Kulliyāt. 2nd ed. New Delhi: CCRUM; 1987: pp. 269, 319, 320, 354.
14. Ghani N. Khaza inul Adviya. New Delhi: Idara Kitāb-ul-Shifa; 2010. Vol VI. pp. 62, 89-92, 525-529.
15. Kabir-ud-din M. Makhzanul Mufradāt. 3rd ed. New Delhi: Idara Kitāb-ul-Shifa; 2014. pp. 50,95,96,225,261,355,356,388,389, 415,416.
16. Khare CP. Indian medicinal plants, An Illustrated Dictionary. New York: Springer Science + business media, LLC; 2007: pp. 32, 33, 79, 101, 238, 239, 263, 653, 654.
17. Sarup P, Bala S, Kamboj S. Pharmacology and Phytochemistry of Oleo-Gum resin of Commiphora wightii (Guggulu). Scientifica [internet]. 2015 [cited on 2019 Jun 30]; 2015:138039. Available from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [PubMed]
18. Deng R. Therapeutic effects of Guggul and its constituent Guggulsterone: Cardiovascular benefits. Wiley Online Library: Cardiovascular drug reviews. 2007; 25(4). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1527-3466.2007
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).