Effects of Momordica charantia (Bittergourd) and Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) Supplements in Type-2 Diabetics Taking Allopathic Drugs
Background: Bittergourd fruit and Fenugreek seeds are the herbal supplements well known with glucose and lipid-lowering properties.
Objective: To assess the effects of Bittergourd and Fenugreek supplements in Type-2 diabetics taking allopathic drugs on blood sugar and lipid profile.
Methods: Open-label, 4-parallel-group, prospective interventional clinical trial was conducted on 48 Type-2 diabetics.They were divided in to four groupsof 12 each. Group Ireceived allopathic drugs alone, Group II, III and IV received supplementation of Bittergourd juice, Fenugreek seeds and Bittergourd juice+Fenugreek seeds together respectively. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), postprandial blood sugar (PPBS) and fasting lipid profile were measured on day 0,7, 15, 30 and 90. P-value was set at 0.05 level of significance. One-way ANOVA and post-hoc multiple comparison by Tukey was applied using SPSS version 21.
Results: Forty two participants completed the study with no adverse events. Supplementation with Bittergourd juice + Fenugreek on day 90 significantly (p-value=0.021) lowered FBS by 19% (p-value=0.021) and PPBS by 35% (p-value=0.001). Supplementation with Fenugreek and Bittergourd juice+Fenugreek both on day 90 significantly (p-value=0.000) lowered serum cholesterol by 16% and 14%, Serum triglyceride by 16% and 21% and LDL-cholesterol by 18% and 17%; however, only Fenugreek supplementation was significantly (p-value=0.015) able to increase HDL-cholesterol by 10%.
Conclusion: Effects of different herbal supplements in Type-2 diabetics for 90 days was observed. Bittergourd juice+Fenugreek seeds combination can lower FBS and PPBS. Both Fenugreek seeds and Bittergourd juice+Fenugreek seeds combination could lower serum cholesterol, Triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol. However, only Fenugreek seeds were capable of increasing serum HDL-cholesterol.
Keywords: Bittergourd; Fenugreek; Herbal-supplement; Type 2 diabetes mellitus
2. Dong H, Wang N, Zhao L, Lu F. Berberine in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2012; 2012:591654.
3. Rosak C. The pathophysiologic basis of efficacy and clinical experience with the new oral antidiabetic agents. J Diabetes Complications, 2002; 16(1):123-132.
4. Levetan C. Oral antidiabetic agents in type 2 diabetes. Curr Med Res Opin, 2007; 23(4):945-952.
5. Ranasinghe P, Jayawardana R, Galappaththy P, Constantine GR, de Vas Gunawardana N, Katulanda P. Efficacy and safety of 'true' cinnamon (Cinnamomumzeylanicum) as a pharmaceutical agent in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabet Med, 2012; 29(12):1480-92.
6. Momin A.Role of indigenous medicine in primary health care. In Proceedings of first international seminar on Unani medicine. New Delhi, India, 1987.
7. Panday DR, Rauniar GP, Panday KR. Lifestyle drugs: a review. IJPBA, 2013; 4(3):418-423.
8. Zhu Y, Dong Y, Qian X, Cui F, Guo Q, Zhou X, et al. Effect of superfine grinding on antidiabetic activity of bitter melon powder. Int J MolSci, 2012; 13(11):14203-18.
9. Tsai CH, Chen EC, Tsay HS, Huang CJ. Wild bitter gourd improves metabolic syndrome: a preliminary dietary supplementation trial. Nutr J, 2012; 11:4.
10. Haber SL, Keonavong J.Fenugreek use in patients with diabetes mellitus. Am J Health Syst Pharm, 2013; 70(14):1196, 1198, 1200, 1202-3.
11. Vijayakumar MV, Singh S, Chhipa RR, Bhat MK. The hypoglycaemic activity of fenugreek seed extract is mediated through the stimulation of an insulin signalling pathway. Br J Pharmacol, 2005; 146(1):41-8.
12. Mohammad S, Taha A, Akhtar K, Bamezai RN, Baquer NZ. In vivo effect of Trigonellafoenumgraecum on the expression of pyruvate kinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and distribution of glucose transporter (GLUT4) in alloxan-diabetic rats. Can J PhysiolPharmacol, 2006; 84(6):647-54.
13. Malik ZA, Singh M, Sharma PL. Neuroprotective effect of Momordicacharantia in global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion induced neuronal damage in diabetic mice. J Ethnopharmacol, 2011; 133(2):729-734.
14. John AJ, Cherian R, Subhash HS, Cherian AM. Evaluation of the efficacy of bitter gourd (momordicacharantia) as an oral hypoglycemic agent--a randomized controlled clinical trial. Indian J PhysiolPharmacol, 2003; 47(3):363-5.
15. Dans AM, Villarruz MV, Jimeno CA, Javelosa MA, Chua J, Bautista R, et al. The effect of Momordicacharantia capsule preparation on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus needs further studies. J ClinEpidemiol, 2007; 60(6):554-9.
16. Fuangchan A, Sonthisombat P, Seubnukarn T, Chanouan R, Chotchaisuwat P, Sirigulsatien V, et al. Hypoglycemic effect of bitter melon compared with metformin in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients. J Ethnopharmacol, 2011; 134(2):422-8.
17. Tripathi UN, Chandra D. The plant extracts of Momordicacharantia and Trigonellafoenum-graecum have anti-oxidant and anti-hyperglycemic properties for cardiac tissue during diabetes mellitus. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity, 2009; 2(5):290-296.
18. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes-2015 abridged for primary care providers. Clin Diabetes, 2015; 33(2):97-111.
19. Prasanna M. Hypolipidemic effect of Fenugreek: A clinical study. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 2000; 32(1):34-36.
20. Mathern JR, Raatz SK, Thomas W, Slavin JL. Effect of fenugreek fiber on satiety, blood glucose and insulin response and energy intake in obese subjects. Phytother Res, 2009; 23(11):1543-8.
21. Singh AB, Tamarkar AK, Narender T, Srivastava AK.Antihyperglycaemic effect of an unusual amino acid (4-hydroxyisoleucine) in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. Nat Prod Res, 2010; 24(3):258-265.
22. Hamden K, Jaouadi B, Carreau S, Aouidet A, El-Fazaa S, Gharbi N, Elfeki A.Potential protective effect on key steroidogenesis and metabolic enzymes and sperm abnormalities by fenugreek steroids in testis and epididymis of surviving diabetic rats. Arch PhysiolBiochem, 2010; 116(3):146-155.
23. Madar Z, Abel R, Samish S, Arad J. Glucose-lowering effect of fenugreek in non-insulin dependent diabetics. Eur J ClinNutr, 1988; 42(1):51-4.
24. Robert SD, Ismail AAS, Wan Rosli WI.Trigonellafoenum-graecum seeds lowers postprandial blood glucose in overweight and obese individuals. J NutrMetab, 2014; 2014:964873.
25. Awal MA, Rashid MU, Ahmed KW, Asadi ZS, Islam K. Effect of karela and fenugreek on lipid profile in hypocholesterolemic diabetic patients. Bangladesh J PhysiolPharmacol, 1999:15:6-8.
26. Suthar A, Pai V , Kadam Y, Tongaonkar A, Kale S, Deshpande A, et al. Efficacy and Safety of PDM011011 Capsules as Compared to Metformin in Subjects with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Open-Label, Randomized, Active-Controlled, Multicentric, Phase III Study. Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, 2016; 6(01):38–48.
27. Sauvaire Y, Petit P, Broca C, Manteghetti M, Baissac Y, Fernandez-Alvarez J, et al. 4-hydroxyisoleucine: A novel amino acid potentiator of insulin secretion. Diabetes, 1998; 47(2):206–210.
28. Belaïd-Nouira Y, Bakhta H, Bouaziz M, et al. Study of lipid profile and parieto-temporal lipid peroxidation in AlCl 3 mediated neurotoxicity. Modulatory effect of fenugreek seeds. Lipids Health Dis, 2012; 11:16.
29. Yoshioka T, Fujita T, Kanai T, Aizawa Y, Kurumada T, Hasegawa K, Horikoshi H. Studies on hindered phenols and analogues. 1. Hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic agents with ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Journal of medicinal chemistry, 1989; 32(2):421–428.
30. Johnson MB, Heineke EW, Rhinehart BL, Sheetz MJ, Barnhart RL, Robinson KM. Mdl-29311-Antioxidant with marked lipid-lowering and glucose-lowering activity in diabetic rats and mice. Diabetes, 1993; 42(8):1179–1186.
31. Laakso M. Epidemiology of diabetic dyslipidemia. Diabetes Reviews, 1995; 3(3):408–422.
32. Ahmed I, Lakhani MS, Gillett M, John A, Raza H. Hypotriglyceridemic and hypocholesterolemic effects of anti-diabetic Momordicacharantia (karela) fruit extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes Res ClinPract, 2001; 51(3):155-61.
33. Parmar K, Patel S, Patel J, Patel B, Patel MB. Effects of bittergourd (MomordicaCharantia) fruit juice on glucose tolerance and lipid profile in type-l diabetic rats. IJDDR, 2011; 3(2):139–146.
34. Gupta R, Verma S. Study of Effects of Consumption of Powdered Fenugreek Seeds on Serum Lipid Profile in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. IJBAR, 2015; 6(1):57–59.
35. Xue WL, Li XS, Zhang J, Liu YH, Wang ZL, Zhang RJ. Effect of Trigonellafoenum-graecum (fenugreek) extract on blood glucose, blood lipid and hemorheological properties in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Asia Pac J ClinNutr, 2007; 16(S1):422–426.
36. Kassaian N, Azadbakht L, Forghani B, Amini M. Effect of fenugreek seeds on blood glucose and lipid profiles in type 2 diabetic patients. Int J Vitam Nutr Res, 2009; 79(1):34–39.
37. Kumar K, Kumar S, Datta A, Bandyopadhyay A. Effect of fenugreek seeds on glycemia and dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Int J Med Sci Public Health, 2015; 4(7):997-1000.
38. Moosa A, M Rashid, AZS Asadi, N Ara, M Uddin, A Ferdaus. Hypolipidemic effects of fenugreek seed powder. Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology, 2006; 1(2):64-67.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).