Comparative Antimicrobial Activities of Alchornea cordifolia Leaf Crude Extracts and Cephalosporin Antibiotics on Some Pathogenic Clinical Isolates
Comparative antimicrobial activities of the aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of Alchornea cordifolia and some Cephalosporin antibiotics of different generations available in Uy, LGA of Akwa Ibom state of Nigeria were evaluated using macro dilution assay to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of the plant aqueouse and ethanol leaf extracts and of the Cephalosporin antibiotics against some pathogenic Gram positive and Gram negative organisms. Results: The extraction yielded 59.9g for aqueouse leaf extract (ALE) and 74.10 g of the ethanol leaf extract. The MIC of the leaf extracts ranging from (1.953 mg/mL - 15.625 mg/ mL) and MBC ranging from (3.906 mg/mL – 62.50 mg/mL). The cephalosporin antibiotics; Ceftriaxone (Chupet®) MIC ranging from (0.0078-0.25 mg/mL), MBC (0.0312 mg/mL – 0.25 mg/mL), Cephalexin (Sporidex®) MIC ranging from (0.009766 mg/ mL - 0.625 mg/ mL), MBC (0.01953 mg/ mL -2.50 mg/ mL) and Cefuroxime with MIC ranging from (0.0078 mg/mL-0.25 mg/mL) and MBC (1.25 mg/mL - 2.5 mg/mL). Antimicrobial substances are considered as bactericidal agent when the ratio MBC/MIC ≤ 4 and bacteriostatic when the ratio MBC/MIC is > 4. The antimicrobial activities evaluated increased in the following order of potency; A. cordifolia leaf extracts > Ceftriaxone > Cefalexin > Cefuroxime considering the values of MBC/MIC.
Keywords: Antimicrobial activities, bacteriostatic, bactericidal, cephalosporin, comparative.
2. Denyer SP, Hodges NA, German SP, Introduction to pharmaceutical microbiology. In: Denyer SP, Hodges NA. & German SP, editors. Hugo and Russell’s pharmaceutical Microbiology. 7th ed. UK: Blackwell Science Press; 2004. P. 3-8.
3. Schlegel HG. General microbiology. 7th ed. Cambridge; Cambridge University Press, 2003. P. 50-55.
4. Russell A D, Types of antibiotics and synthetic antimicrobial agents: In: Denyer SP, Hodges NA & German SP, editors. Hugo and Russell’s pharmaceutical microbiology.7th Ed, UK: Blackwell Science; 2004. P.152-186.
5. Salma Jumaa and Rafik Karaman, Antibiotics: In: Rafik Karaman, editor. Commonly Used Drugs © 2015 Nova Science Publishers, Inc. 42-72.
6. Park SH, Is Antibiotic Resistance Microorganism Becoming a Significant Problem in Acute Cholangitis in Korea? Clin Endosc., 2012; 45:111-112. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.5946/ce.2012.45.2.111.
7. Okeke IN, Aboderin OA, Byarugaba DK, Ojo KK, Opintan JA. Growing problem of multidrug-resistant enteric pathogens in Africa. Emerg Infect Dis., 2007; 13:1640-1646.
8. Remesh A, Salim S, Gayathri AM, Nair U, Retnavally KG. Antibiotics prescribing pattern in the in-patient departments of a tertiary care hospital. Arch Pharma Pract., 2013; 4:1-7.
9. Lemke LT, Antiparasitic agents. In: Thomas L. Lemke and David A. Williams, editors. Foye’s Principles of medicinal Chemistry. 6th Ed, Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008. p. 1028-1082.
10. Saira BC, Micheal PV, Jamie LW, Cephalosporins: A focus on side chains and beta-lactam cross reactivity. Pharmacy (Basel), 2019; 7(3):103. doi: 10.3390/pharmacy7030103
11. Singh P, Garg A, Raman M. Agrawal D, Effect of replacing barley grain with wheat bran on intake and utilisation of nutrients in adult sheep. Small Rumin. Res., 1999; 31(3):215-219
12. Naveed MD, Saleeh MS, Different generations of cephalosporin medications. 2019; Available at: https://www.verywellhealth.com/what-are-cephalosporins-1124176
13. Mehta D, Sharma AK, Cephalosporins: A Review on Imperative Class of Antibiotics. Inventi Rapid: Molecular Pharmacology, 2016(1):1-6, 2015.
14. Ajibade TO, Olayemi FO, “Reproductive and toxic effects of methanol extract of Alchornea cordifolia leaf in male rats” Andrologia, 2015; 47:(9) 1034–1040.
15. Siwe-Noundou X, Krause RW, Van-Vuuren SF, Ntinteh DT, Olivier DK, “Antibacterial effects of Alchornea cordfolia (Schumach. &Thonn.) Müll. Arg. extracts and compounds on gastrointestinal, skin, respiratory and urinary tract pathogens” J. Ethnopharmacol, 2016; 179: 76–82.
16. Mavar-Manga H, Brkic D, Marie DEP, Quetin-Leclercq J, “In-vivo anti-inflammatory activity of Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. &Thonn.) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae)” J Ethnopharmacol, 2004; 92:209 – 214.
17. Osadebe PO, Okoye FB, Uzor PF, Nnamani NR, Adiele IE, Obiano NC, Phytochemical analysis, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Alchorneacordifolia methanol leaf extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2012; 5:289-293.
18. Boniface PK, Ferreira SB, Kaiser CR, Recent Trends in Phytochemistry, Etnobotany and Pharmacological Significance of Alchorneacordifolia (Schumach&Thonn.) Muell. Arg. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2016; 191:216-244.
19. Azwanida NN. A Review on the Extraction Methods Use in Medicinal Plants, Principle, Strength and Limitation. Med Aromat Plants. 2015; 4:196.
20. Gatsing D, Nkeugouapi CF, Nji-Nkah BF, Kuiate JR, Tchouanguep FM, Antibacterial activity, bioavailability and acute toxicity evaluation the leaf extract of Alchorneacordifolia (Euphorbiaceae). Int J Pharmacol. 2010; 6:173–182.
21. Sudhakar MC, Rau PM. Roa DB. Rajo, Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of Cleome Viscose and G. Asiatic. Fitoterapia. 2006; 77:47-49. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2005.08.003.
22. Joseph N., Sorel NEM, Félicien, M.K., Emmanuel M.M., Phytochemical screening and antibacterial properties from extract of Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. &Thonn.) Müll. Arg. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2015; 4(3):176-180
23. Flora TM, Igor KV, Veronique PB and Victor K ; Antibacterial activities of methanol extracts from Alchornea cordifolia and four other Cameroonian plants against MDR phenotypes, Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences, 2016; 1-7. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/290623291.
24. Ebenyi LN, Nwakaeze AE, Moses IB, Iroha IR, Uzoeto JO, Ugochukwu JI, Eddison IO and Okamkpa CJ. Antibacterial activity of Alchornea cordifolia leaves found in Ebonyi state, Nigeria. International Journal Of Advances In Pharmacy, Biology And Chemistry –Jan – Mar, 2017; 6 (1), 46.
25. Newton GGF. & Abraham EP. Degradation, structure and some derivatives of cephalosporin N. Biochemical Journal. 58:103-111.Siwe-Noundou, X., Krause, R.W., Van-Vuuren, S.F., Ntinteh, D.T., Olivier, D.K., 2016. Antibacterial seffects of Alchorneacordfolia (Schumach. &Thonn.) Müll. Arg. extracts and compounds on gastrointestinal, skin, respiratory and urinary tract pathogens. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1954; 179, 76–82.
26. AA. Agboke, IF. Ubak, CN. Nwosu, EM. Henry and MA. Momoh, In vitro Evaluation of Spectrum of Antimicrobial Activities of Leaves and Stem Bark Extracts of Alchornea cordifolia against Some Pathogenic Clinical Isolates from University of Uyo Medical Centre. Journal of Advances in Microbiology, 2020; 20 (4): 58-65.
27. Kalman D, Barriere SL. “Review of the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical use of cephalosporins”. Texas Heart Institute Journal/From the Texas Heart Institute of St. Luke’s Episcopal Hospital, Texas Children’s Hospital, 1990; 17 (3):203-215.
28. Harrison CJ, Bratcher D. “Cephalosporins: A review. Pediatrics in review. 2008; 29 (8): 264-273. DOI:10.1542/pir.29-8-264. Corpus ID: 207170500
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0). that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).