Comparative Antimicrobial Activities of Alchornea cordifolia Leaf Crude Extracts and Cephalosporin Antibiotics on Some Pathogenic Clinical Isolates

  • A. A. Agboke Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
  • C. N. Nwosu Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
  • D. O. Obindo Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
  • M. H. Ekanem Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
  • E. V. Edet Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
  • I. F. Ubak Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

Abstract

Comparative antimicrobial activities of the aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of Alchornea cordifolia and some Cephalosporin antibiotics of different generations available in Uy, LGA of Akwa Ibom state of Nigeria were evaluated using macro dilution assay to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of the plant aqueouse and ethanol leaf extracts and of the Cephalosporin antibiotics against some pathogenic Gram positive and Gram negative organisms. Results: The extraction yielded 59.9g for aqueouse leaf extract (ALE) and 74.10 g of the ethanol leaf extract. The MIC of the leaf extracts ranging from (1.953 mg/mL - 15.625 mg/ mL) and MBC ranging from (3.906 mg/mL – 62.50 mg/mL). The cephalosporin antibiotics; Ceftriaxone (Chupet®) MIC ranging from (0.0078-0.25 mg/mL), MBC (0.0312 mg/mL – 0.25 mg/mL), Cephalexin (Sporidex®) MIC ranging from (0.009766 mg/ mL - 0.625 mg/ mL), MBC (0.01953 mg/ mL -2.50 mg/ mL) and Cefuroxime with MIC ranging from (0.0078 mg/mL-0.25 mg/mL) and MBC (1.25 mg/mL - 2.5 mg/mL). Antimicrobial substances are considered as bactericidal agent when the ratio MBC/MIC ≤ 4 and bacteriostatic when the ratio MBC/MIC is > 4. The antimicrobial activities evaluated increased in the following order of potency; A. cordifolia leaf extracts > Ceftriaxone > Cefalexin > Cefuroxime considering the values of MBC/MIC.


Keywords: Antimicrobial activities, bacteriostatic, bactericidal, cephalosporin, comparative.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activities, bacteriostatic, bactericidal, cephalosporin, comparative

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Author Biographies

A. A. Agboke, Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

C. N. Nwosu, Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

D. O. Obindo, Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

M. H. Ekanem, Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

E. V. Edet, Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

I. F. Ubak, Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

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Agboke AA, Nwosu CN, Obindo DO, Ekanem MH, Edet EV, Ubak IF. Comparative Antimicrobial Activities of Alchornea cordifolia Leaf Crude Extracts and Cephalosporin Antibiotics on Some Pathogenic Clinical Isolates. JDDT [Internet]. 17Oct.2020 [cited 21Oct.2020];10(5-s):170-6. Available from: http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4363