The therapeutic effect of Cinnamomum cassia essential oil against hepatotoxicity induced by co-exposure to lead and manganese in developing Wistar rats
The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of Cinnamomum cassia essential oil (CCEO) on hepatotoxicity induced by co-exposure to lead acetate (Pb) (2.84mg/ml) and manganese chloride (Mn) (4.79mg/ml) in developing Wistar rats. After weaning, rats exposed to Pb-Mn received injections of Cinnamomum cassia essential oil (0.1 ml/kg) for 21 days. Extraction by hydrodistillation yielded 1.10% of OECC and the characterization of this oil by GC-MS indicates that the major components of this oil are: E-cinnamaldehyde (85.77%), linalool (3.70%), Z-cinnamaldehyde (3.22%) and B-phellandréne (1.19%). The concentration of lead and manganese in hepatocyte tissues was significantly increased compared to control rats. However, levels of hepatic markers such as Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly increased in blood in Pb-Mn poisoned rats. Pb-Mn-induced oxidative stress in liver tissue was indicated by decreased levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase respectively. Histologically, the liver showed several tissue alterations such as hepatocyte necrosis and the presence of steatosis foci. Administration of OECC considerably attenuated previous biochemical alterations as well as histological and cellular changes in liver tissue. In this study, we can conclude that the Cinnamomum cassia essential oil showed a hepatoprotective effect.
Keywords: Essential oil, Cinnamomum cassia, CG/MS, Hepatotoxicity, Lead acetate, Manganese chloride.
 Marco J, Zabay J, Garcia-Marco M A, Gomez G, Mul J M, Munar MA, Soler J and Viader C, AngiotensinogeneT174M polymorphism: opposite relationships with essential hypertension and obesity in a homogenous population from Majorca (Baleric islands, spain), Nefrologia., 2005; 25:629-36.
 Santos D, Milatovic D, Andrade V, Batoreu MC, Aschner M, Marreilha dos Santos AP, The inhibitory effect of manganese on acetylcholinesterase activity enhances oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the rat brain, Toxicology., 2012; 26:292(2-3):90-8.
 Lebda M, El-Neweshy MS, El-Sayed YS, Neurohepatic Toxicity of subacute manganese chloride exposure and potential chemoprotective effects of lycopene, NeuroToxicology., 2012; 33: 98–104.
 Teixeira B, Marques A, Ramos C, Neng NR, Nogueira JM, Saraiva JA and Nunes ML, Chemical composition and antibacterial and antioxidant properties of commercial essential oils, Ind Crops Prod., 2013; 43:587–595.
 Hamidpour R, Hamidpour M, Hamidpour S & Shahlari M, Cinnamon from the selection of traditional applications to its novel effects on the inhibition of angiogenesis in cancer cells and prevention of Alzheimer's disease, and a series of functions such as antioxidant, anticholesterol, antidiabetes, antibacterial, antifungal, nematicidal, acaracidal, and repellent activities, Journal of traditional and complementary medicine., 2015; 5(2):66-70.
 Li S, Wang C, Peng X, Wu X, Effects of Aqueous Extracts and Essential Oil from Cinnamomum cassia on Rat Colonic Mucosal Morphology and Bacteroidales, Journal of Food and Nutrition Research., 2013; 1(2):7–12.
 Halder S, Mehta AK, Kar R, Mustafa M, Mediratta PK and Sharma KK, Clove oil reverses learning and memory deficits in scopolamine-treated mice, Planta Medica., 2011; 77(8):830–4.
 Molina RM, Phattanarudee S, Kim J, Thompson K, Wessling-Resnick M, Maher TJ and Brain JD, “Ingestion of Mn and Pb by Rats during and after Pregnancy Alters Iron Metabolism and Behavior in Offspring”,Neu roToxicology., 2011; 32(4):413-422.
 Reitman S, Frankle S, Coloremetric method for determination of serum transaminase activity, American Journal of Clinical Pathology., 1957; 28:56-68.
 Thomas C, Thomas L, (1992). Labor diagnostik v on Erkrankung en der Nier en und ableitendenHar (hrsg) Dans: Thomas L, 6 éd. Philadelphi, Labor und Diagnose.
 Fossati P, Prencipe L, Serum triglycerides determined colorimetrically with an enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide, Clinical Chemistry., 1982; 28:2077–2080.
 Jollow DJ, Mitchell JR, Zampaglione N, et al, Bromobenzene-induced liver necrosis. Protective role of glutathione and evidence for 3,4-bromobenzene oxide as the hepatotoxic metabolite, Pharmacology., 1973; 11:151–69
 Wenqiang G, Shufen L, Ruixiang Y, et al, Comparison of essential oils of clove buds extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide and other three traditional extraction methods, Nat Prod Res., 2006; 20:992–8
 Karousou R, Koureas DN, Kokkini S, Essential oil composition is related to the natural habitats: Corido Thymus capitatus and Satureja thymbra in Natura 2000, Phytochemistry., 2005; 66:2668–73
 Suvarna SK, Layton C, Bancroft JD, (2013). Bancroft's theory and practice of histological techniques. 7 th Ed. England: Churchill Livingstone. Elsevier.
 Krishnamoorthy BT, JOHN ZA, Rema J, & Mathew PA, Evaluation of selected Chinese cassia (Cinnamomum cassia Blume) accessions for chemical quality, Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops., 1999; 8(2):193-195.
 Linsheng W, Yafang Z, and Boquan J, Comparison of Microwave-assisted Hydrodistillation with the Traditional Hydrodistillation Method in the Extraction of Essential Oils from Dwarfed Cinnamomum Camphora var ,Linaolifera Fujita Leaves and Twigs, J ,Adv. J,Food Sci,Technol., 2013; 5(11): 1436-1442.
 Goullé JP, Saussereau E, Lacroix C, and Guerbet M, Toxicologie et pharmacologie médico-légales.Paris Elsevier ; 2012 ; 189–232
 Lee BK, & Kim Y, Relationship between blood manganese and blood pressure in the Korean general population according to KNHANES 2008, Environmental research., 2011;111(6): 797-803.
 Krachler M, Rossipal E, & Micetic-Turk D, Trace Element Transfer from the Mother to the Newborn—Investigations on Triplets of Colostrum, Maternal, and Umbilical Cord Sera, In Trace Elements in Man and Animals., 2002; 10:(365-368).
 Chowdhury TR, Mandal BK, Samanta G, Basu GK, Chowdhury PP, Chanda CR & Saha KC, Arsenic in groundwater in six districts of West Bengal, India: the biggest arsenic calamity in the world: the status report up to August, 1995, In Arsenic.,1997; (93-111).
 Tholin K, Palm R, Hallmans G, & Sandström B, Manganese status during pregnancy, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences., 1993; 678(1):359-360.
 Mehana EE, Meki AMA, And Fazili KM, Ameliorated effects of green tea extract on lead induced liver toxicity in rats, Exp. Toxicol. Pathol., 2010; Doi: 10: 1016 / J. etp
 Shalan MG, Mostafa MS, Hassouna MM, El-Nabi SE, El-Refaie A, Amelioration of lead toxicity on rat liver with vitamin C and silymarin supplements, Toxicology., 2005; 206:1-15.
 Lombardi PE, Peri SI, & Guerrero NRV, ALA-D and ALA-D reactivated as biomarkers of lead contamination in the fish Prochilodus lineatus, Ecotoxicology and environmental safety.,2010; 73(7):1704-1711.
 Ibrahim NM, Eweis EA, El-Beltagi HS and Abdel Mobdy YE, Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rats, Asian Paci. J. Trop.Biomed., 2012; 41-46.
 Upadhyay Ak, Mathur R, Bhadauria M and Nirala Sk, Therapeutic influence of zinc and ascorbic acid against lead induced biochemical alterations, Thérapie., 2009; 64(6):383–388.
 Crossgrove J, and Zheng W,.Manganese toxicity upon overexposure, NMR Biomed., 2004; 17:544–553.
 Peili H , Chunxia C , Hui W , Guojun L , Haiming J , Ying H, Na LiuYX, Qiuhong Y, Yuting L, Pengwen W, Zhixiong S, Zhiwei S, Manganese effects in the liver following subacute or subchronic manganese chloride exposure in rats, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety., 2011; (74):615-622.
 Fordahl S, Cooney P, Qiu Y, Xie G, Jia W, and Erikson KM, Waterborne manganese exposure alters plasma, brain, and liver metabolites accompanied by changes in stereotypic behaviors, Neurotoxicol Teratol., 2012; 34(1):27–36.
 Nabil M, Ibrabim E A, Eweis H, and Yasmin E, Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rate, Asian pacific journal of tropical biomedicine., 2012; 41-46.
 Noriega GO, Tomaro ML, and Del Battle AM, Bilirubin is highly effective in preventing in vivo delta – aminolevulinic acid – induced oxidative cell damage, Biochem. Biophys. Acta., 2003; 1638(2):173-178.
 Chou ST, Chang WL, Chang CT, Hsu SL, Lin YC, & Shih Y, Cinnamomum cassia essential oil inhibits α-MSH-induced melanin production and oxidative stress in murine B16 melanoma cells, International journal of molecular sciences., 2013; 14(9):19186-19201.
 Patrick GW, Anderson WJ, and Brophy P, Dendritic alterations of cortical pyramidal neurons in postnatally lead-exposed kittens: a Golgi-Cox study, Dev Neurosci., 1995; 17:219-229.
 O’Flaherty EJ, Adams WD, Hammond PB, Taylor E, Resistance of the rat to development of lead-induced renal functional deﬁcits , J Toxicol. Environ., 1986; 18:61–75.
 Bhattacharjee P, Banerjee M, & Giri AK, Role of genomic instability in arsenic-induced carcinogenicity. A review. Environment international., 2013; 53:29-40.
 Goldstein S, Meyerstein D, and Czapski G, The Fenton reagents, Free Radical Biology & Medicine., 1993; 15:435–445.
 Martinez-Finley EJ, Gavin CE, Aschner M, & Gunter TE, Manganese neurotoxicity and the role of reactive oxygen species, Free Radical Biology & Medicine., 2013; 62:65–75.
 Farina M, Avila DS, da Rocha JB, and Aschner M, Metals, oxidative stress and neurodegeneration: A focus on iron, manganese and mercury, Neurochemistry International., 2012; 62:575–594.
 Jarrar BM, Taib NT, Histological and histochemical alterations in the liver induced by lead chronic toxicity, Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences., 2012; 19:203–210.
 Johar D, Roth JC, Bay GH, Walker JN, and Kroczak TJ, Los M, Inflammatory response, reactive oxygen species, programmed (necrotic-like and apoptotic) cell death and cancer, Rocz, Akad, Med, Bialymst., 2004; 49:31–39.
 Liao JC, Deng JS, Chiu CS, Hou WC, Huang SS, Shie PH, & Huang GJ, Anti-inflammatory activities of Cinnamomum cassia constituents in vitro and in vivo. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, (2012).
 Rao PV, and Gan SH, Cinnamon:A Multifaceted Medicinal Plant ,Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine., 2014; 1-12.
 Yong-Ming Y, Ping F, Mu-Tian Y, Ning L, Qing L and Yong-Xian C, Anti-diabetic nephropathy compounds from Cinnamomum cassia, Journal of Ethnopharmacology., 2015; (165):141-147.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).