Rheumatoid Arthritis: Etiology, Treatment and Animal Models
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that can cause joint pain and damage throughout your body. About 75% of Rheumatoid arthritis patients are women. In fact, 1 – 3% of women may get rheumatoid arthritis in their lifetime. The disease most often begins between the ages of 30 and 50. Rheumatoid arthritis occurs when your immune system attacks the synovium, the lining of the membranes that surround your joints. The resulting inflammation thickens the synovium, which can eventually destroy the cartilage and bone within the joint. The tendons and ligaments that hold the joint together weaken and stretch. Gradually, the joint loses its shape and alignment. It also affects other organs of body like: skin, eyes, heart, kidneys, and lungs. The main risk factors that cause Rheumatoid arthritis are Age, Gender, Genetics, weight, smoking, diet, etc. Three main ways to treat rheumatoid arthritis are Drugs, physical therapies and surgery. There are four main groups of drugs that are used to treat rheumatoid arthritis are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs , disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and steroids (also known as corticosteroids). Collagen induced arthritis and Adjuvant arthritis are the most commonly used standard animal models in Rheumatoid arthritis. This literature review assessed the sign & symptoms, risk factors, etiology, treatment and standard animal models for Rheumatoid arthritis.
Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis, Inflammation, Antirheumatic drugs, Adjuvants, Rat, Mice.
2. El-barbary AM, Khalek MA, Elsalawy AM, Hazaa SM. Assessment of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis patients. The Egyptian Rheumatologist. 2011 Oct 1; 33(4):179-85.
3. Pincus T, Castrejon I. An evidence-based medical visit for patients with rheumatoid arthritis based on standard, quantitative scientific data from a patient MDHAQ and physician report. Bulletin of the NYU hospital for joint diseases. 2012 Apr 1; 70(2).
4. Fischer BD, Adeyemo A, O’Leary ME, Bottaro A. Animal models of rheumatoid pain: experimental systems and insights. Arthritis research & therapy. 2017 Dec 1; 19(1):146.
5. Kollias G, Papadaki P, Apparailly F, Vervoordeldonk MJ, Holmdahl R, Baumans V, Desaintes C, Di Santo J, Distler J, Garside P, Hegen M. Animal models for arthritis: innovative tools for prevention and treatment. Annals of the rheumatic diseases. 2011 Aug 1; 70(8):1357-62.
6. Nkemdilim OC. Differential Diagnosis And Tests Of Rheumatoid Arthritis And Its Implication For Physiotherapy.
7. Jordan E, Gallicchio VS. Stem Cell Therapy as a Treatment Method for Rheumatoid Arthritis. Stem Cells Regen Med. 2020; 4(1):1-0.
8. Wright V, Dowson D, Kerr J. The structure of joints. International review of connective tissue research 1973; 6:105-125. Elsevier.
9. Kohli N. An investigation of primary human cell sources and clinical scaffolds for articular cartilage repair (Doctoral dissertation, Aston University).
10. Martin JA. Intra-Articular Lubricin Gene Therapy for Post-Traumatic Arthritis. University of Iowa Iowa City United States; 2015 Sep 1.
11. Andersson U, Tracey KJ. A new approach to rheumatoid arthritis: treating inflammation with computerized nerve stimulation. InCerebrum: the Dana forum on brain science 2012 Mar (Vol. 2012). Dana Foundation.
12. Ferraz-Amaro I, González-Juanatey C, Lopez-Mejias R, Riancho-Zarrabeitia L, González-Gay MA. Metabolic syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis. Mediators of Inflammation. 2013 Jan 1; 2013.
13. Iqbal S, Rattu MA. Review of rheumatoid arthritis. US Pharm. 2019; 44(1):8-11.
14. Wasserman A. Diagnosis and management of rheumatoid arthritis. American family physician. 2011 Dec 1; 84(11):1245-52.
15. Andersen ML, Winter LM. Animal models in biological and biomedical research-experimental and ethical concerns. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias. 2019; 91.
16. Bendele A. Animal models of rheumatoid arthritis. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2001 Jun 1; 1(4):377-85.
17. Sindhu RK, Sood N, Puri V, Arora S. Various animal models for preclinical testing of anti-inflammatory agents. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2017 Apr 1; 8(4):1550.
18. Yau AC, Holmdahl R. Rheumatoid arthritis: identifying and characterising polymorphisms using rat models. Disease models & mechanisms. 2016 Oct 1; 9(10):1111-23.
19. Williams RO. Models of rheumatoid arthritis. In Animal Models of T Cell-Mediated Skin Diseases 2005 (pp. 89-117). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
20. Williams RO. Collagen-induced arthritis as a model for rheumatoid arthritis. In-Tumor Necrosis Factor 2004 (pp. 207-216).
22. Vogel HG. Drug discovery and evaluation pharmacological assays. 2nd edition. New York: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg; 2002. P.776-820.
23. Cremer MA, Rosloniec EF, Kang AH. The cartilage collagens: a review of their structure, organization, and role in the pathogenesis of experimental arthritis in animals and in human rheumatic disease. Journal of molecular medicine. 1998 Feb 1; 76(3-4):275-88.
24. Billiau A, Matthys P. Collagen-induced arthritis and related animal models: how much of their pathogenesis is auto-immune, how much is auto-inflammatory? Cytokine & growth factor reviews. 2011 Oct 1; 22(5-6):339-44.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).