Phytochemical study and antimicrobial activity of Algerian Marrubium vulgare leaf and stem extracts

  • Nadia BENZIDANE Laboratory of Applied Biochemistry, Faculty of Nature and Life Sciences, Ferhat Abbas University of Setif
  • Ridha SMAHI
  • Boudjemaa ZABOUCHE
  • Abdelhalim MAKROUF
  • Lekhmici ARRAR Laboratory of Applied Biochemistry, Faculty of Nature and Life Sciences, Ferhat Abbas University of Setif


Marrubium vulgare is used worldwide as a source of food flavor and for medicinal purposes. The aim of this study is to investigate polyphenol and flavonoid contents of M. vulgare extracts and their antimicrobial activities. Extraction was conducted using methanol and hexane. The determination of polyphenol content was realized with folin ciocalteu method and flavonoids using AlCl3. Rouph characterization of these compounds was done with HPLC method. Activity against bacteria and fungi was also studied. Results showed that methanolic extracts of leaves (LME) and stems SME) contain relatively high levels of polyphenols ad flavonoids.  Except for hexane extract, all extracts from leaves and stems possess antibacterial and antifungal effects especially against Staphyloccocus aureus and Candida albicans. This finding suggests that M. vulgare methanolic extracts could serve as a basic material for the preparation of antimicrobial drugs.

Keywords: Marrubium vulgare, polyphenols, flavonoids, antibacterial, antifungal activities.

Keywords: Marrubium vulgare, polyphenols, flavonoids, antibacterial, antifungal activities


Download data is not yet available.


[1]. Boukef MK. Traditional medicine and pharmacopoeia, plants of traditional Tunisian medicine (in French), Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique. Paris. 1986; pp.163-164.
[2]. Boudjelal A, Henchiri C, Siracusa L, Sari M, Ruberto G. Compositional analysis and in vivo anti-diabetic activity of wild Algerian Marrubium vulgare L. infusion. Fitoterapia. 2012; 83:286–292.
[3]. Abadi A, Hassani A. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil of marrubium vulgare from eastern Algeria. International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy. 2013; 10(1):61-69.
[4]. Popoola OK, Elbagory AM, Ameer F, Hussein AA, Marrubiin. Molecules. 2013; 18:9049-9060.
[5]. Lodhi S, Vadnere GP, Sharma VK, Usman MdR. Marrubium vulgare L. A review on phytochemical and pharmacological aspects. Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology. 2017; 6(4):429-452.
[6]. Hennebelle T, Sahpaz S, Skaltsounis AL, Bailleul F. Phenolic compounds and diterpenoids from Marrubium peregrinum. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2007; 35(9):624-626.
[7]. Popa DP, Pasechnik GS, Anh PT. Marrubiol-a new diterpenoid from Marrubium vulgare. Chem Nat Comp. 1968; 4(6):291-293.
[8]. Popa DP, Pasechnik GS. Structure of vulgarol-new diterpenoid from Marrubium vulgare; Chem Nat Compd. 1975; 11:752-756.
[9]. Seo S, Gomi K, Kaku H, Abe H, Seto H, Nakatsu S, Neya M, Kobayashi M, Nakaho K, Ichinose Y, Mitsuhara I, Ohashi Y. Identification of natural diterpenes that inhibit bacterial wilt disease in tobacco, tomato and arabidopsis. Plant Cell Physiol. 2012; 53(8):1432–1444.
[10]. Masoodi M, Ali, Liang S, Yin H, Wang W, Khan IA. Labdane diterpenoids from Marrubium vulgare. Phytochem Letters. 2015; 13:275-279.
[11]. Meyre-Silva C, Cechinel-Filho V. A review of the chemical and pharmacological aspects of the genus marrubium. Curr Pharm Des. 2010; 16:3503-3518.
[12]. Quattrocchi U. CRC World dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 2012; p. 2430.
[13]. Herrera-Arellano A, Aguilar-Santamaria L, Garcia-Hernandez B, Nicasio-Torres P, Tortoriello J. Clinical trial of cecropia obtusifolia and Marrubium vulgare leaf extracts on blood glucose and serum lipids in type 2 diabetics. Phytomed. 2004; 11:561-566.
[14]. Knoss W. Marrubium vulgare (White Horehound): In vitro culture, and the production of diterpene marrubiin and other secondary metabolites. Biotechnol. Agric. For. 1999; 43:274-289.
[15]. de Souza, MM, de Jesus RA, Cechinel-Filho, V, Schlemper V. Analgesic profile of hydroalcoholic extract obtained from Marrubium vulgare. Phytomedicine. 1998; 5:103–107.
[16]. El Bardai S, Lyoussi B, Wibo M, Morel N. Comparative study of the antihypertensive activity of Marrubium vulgare and of the dihydropyridine calcium antagonist amlodipine in spontaneously hypertensive rat. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2004; 26:465–474.
[17]. El Bardai S, Morel N, Wibo M, Fabre N, Llabres G, Lyoussi B, Quetin-Leclercq J. The vasorelaxant activity of marrubenol and marrubiin from Marrubium vulgare. Planta Med. 2003; 69(1):75–77.
[18]. Verma A, Masoodi M, Ahmed B () Lead finding from whole plant of Marrubium vulgare L. with hepatoprotective potentials through in silico methods. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012; 2:S1308–S11.
[19]. Masoodi MH, Ahmad B, Zargar IM, Khan SA, Khan S, Singh P. Antibacterial activity of whole plant extract of Marrubium vulgare. Afr J Biotechnol. 2008; 7:86–87.
[20]. Namoune I, Khettal B,Assaf AM, Elhayek S, Arrar L. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of organic and aqueous extracts of northeast Algerian Marrubium vulgare. Phythérapie. 2018; 16(S1):S119-S129.
[21]. Amraoui N, Mayouf N, Charef N, Baghiani A, Arrar L. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of methanol extract of Tamus communis L. roots. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2019; 18(7):1499-1506.
[22]. Amamra S, Charef N, Arrar L, Belhaddad O, Khennouf S, Zaim K, Baghiani A. Phenolic content, antioxidant and antibacterial effects of fruit extracts of Algerian ash, Fraxinus excelsior. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2018; 80(6):1021-1028.
[23]. Gómez-Caravaca AM, Gómez-Romero M, Arráez-Román D, Segura Carretero A, Fernández-Gutiérrez A. Advances in the analysis of phenolic compounds in products derived from bees. J. Pharmaceut. Biomed. Anal. 2006; 41:1220-1234.
[24]. Exner M. Divergent opinions on surface disinfection: myths or prevention? A review of the literature. GMS Krankenhaushygiene Interdisziplinar. 2007; 2:1–7.
[25]. Dorman H.J.D., Deans S.G.: Antimicrobial agents from plants: Antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. J Appl Microbiol. 2000; 88:308–316.
[26]. Ghardi TA, Mousavi SL, Sharafi SM, Alipour Astaneh SD, Rezaee MB. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, hematologic and cytotoxic properties of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil. Modares J Med Sci. 2010; 12:54–58.
[27]. Serban E.S., Ionescu M, Matinca D, Maier CS, Bojita MT. Screening of the antibacterial and antifungal activity of eight volatile essential oils. Farmacia. 2011; 59:440–446.
[28]. Cavanagh MMA, Wilkinson JM. Biological activity of Lavender essential oil. Phytother Res. 2002; 16:301–308.
[29]. Ahmad I, Aqil, F. In vitro efficacy of bioactive extracts of 15 medicinal plants against ESbL-producing multidrug-resistant enteric bacteria. Microbiolog. Res. 2007; 162:264–275.
[30]. Mohamed H, Krema Z, Mokthar E, Ellabib M, El Magrahi H, Eshwika A. Oral Candida colonization in HIV-infected patients: Species and antifungal susceptibility in Tripoli/Libya. Int J Clinical Microbiol Biochem Technol. 2018; 1-8.
[31]. Martins MD, Lozano-Chiu M, Rex JH. Point prevalence of oropharyngeal colonization of fluconazole-resistant Candida in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Clin Infect Dis. 1997; 25:843-846.
378 Views | 373 Downloads
How to Cite
BENZIDANE N, SMAHI R, ZABOUCHE B, MAKROUF A, ARRAR L. Phytochemical study and antimicrobial activity of Algerian Marrubium vulgare leaf and stem extracts. JDDT [Internet]. 15Sep.2020 [cited 8Dec.2022];10(5):70-4. Available from: