Review on Antityrosinase Activity of Some Indian Medicinal Plants and their Phytoconstituents
Tyrosinase (polyphenolic oxidase) is a multifunctional and copper containing enzyme. Tyrosinase is an enzyme which is responsible for melanin biosynthesis which is responsible for color of the skin. Melanin is synthesised in melanocyte cells by melanogenesis process. Melanogenesis protects skin surface from harmful ultraviolet radiations. Melanin is mainly synthesized in plants, micro organisms and mammalian cells. Melanin pigment is responsible for hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation. When melanin is present in very less amount it causes local vitiligo and posttraumatic hypopigmentation. When melanin is present in very less amount it causes local vitiligo and posttraumatic hypopigmentation. Abnormal amount of melanin deposit in the specific sites of skin causes abnormal skin colored patches like solar lentigos, chloasma, freckles, post inflammatory hyperpigmentation etc. Tyrosinase is also responsible for color changes in fruits due to enzymatic reactions. Tyrosinase inhibitor compounds are used in cosmetics, food, agriculture science and also used in remedy for imbalance in pigmentations. Some Indian herbal plants and agents like Aloe barbedensis, Crocus sativus, Curcuma longa, Camellia sinensis, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Glycine max, Nelumbo nucifera, Hemidesmus indicus, Vitis Vinifera, Broussonetia papyrifera, resorcinol, arbutin, kojic acid, hydroquinone and ascorbic acid have antityrosinase enzymatic activity. So these plants and inhibitory agents are used in cosmetic industries due to their tyrosinase inhibitory effects or antityrosinase activity or antihyperpigmentation effects.
Keywords: Anti-hyperpimentation, Tyrosinase Inhibitor, Melanin, Herbal drugs.
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