Disintegrant Properties of Native Starches obtained from Cassava, Sweet Potato and Corn in Ibuprofen Tablet Formulations
This study is aimed at evaluating the disintegrant properties of starches obtained from cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and yellow corn (Zea mays). Matured tubers of cassava and potato were peeled, cut into smaller pieces, wet milled and their slurries washed severally with distilled water to obtain cassava and potato starches respectively. Matured seeds of yellow corn were steeped in distilled water for 24 h, wet milled and washed to separate the starch from the cellulose. The starches were dried at 50 ˚C after which they were characterized using standard methods. The starches at 10 % w/w were applied as disintegrants in the formulation of metronidazole tablets using wet granulation technology. Corn starch (British Pharmacopoeia) at 10 % w/w was used as comparing standard. The ibuprofen granules were evaluated for their micromeritic properties and thereafter compressed into ibuprofen tablets. Evaluation of the ibuprofen tablets for their physical properties, assay and dissolution studies were done using British Pharmacopoeia methods. Results showed that the materials extracted were starches, and they had a poor flow. The ibuprofen granules were flowable and compressible. Ibuprofen tablets compressed from these granules had good physical properties: minimal weight variation (604.00 ± 0.04 – 606.00 mg ± 0.03%), hardness (5.32 ± 0.41 – 6.33 ± 0.64 kgF), disintegration time < 15.00 min and friability < 1.00%. Assay and dissolution of metronidazole from the tablets complied with British Pharmacopoeia criteria. Cassava, potato, and yellow corn starches served as good disintegrants in ibuprofen tablet formulations.
Keywords: Disintegrant, starch, cassava, potato, corn, ibuprofen tablets
2.Gavura, S. "What's all that other stuff in my medicine?". Science-Based Medicine. Archived from the original on 2019. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
3.Markl D, Zeitler JA, A Review of Disintegration Mechanisms and Measurement Techniques, Pharm Res., 2017; 34(5): 890–917
4.Desai PM, Liew CV, Heng PWS, Review of Disintegrants and the Disintegration Phenomena. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2016; 105(9):2545-2555
5.Khairnar DA, Anantwar SP, Chaudhari CS, Shelke PA, Superdisintegrants: An emerging paradigm in orodispersible tablets. International Journal of Biopharmaceutics. 2014, 5(2):119-28.
6.Nayak AK, Manna K, “Current developments in orally disintegrating tablet technology,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 2011; 2 (1):21–34.
7.Emeje MO, Rodrigues A. In: Valdez B, editor. Starch: From Food to Medicine, Scientific, Health and Social Aspects of the Food Industry. InTech; 2012, ISBN: 978-953-307-916-
8.Cheetham NWH, Tao L.. Variation in crystalline type with amylose content in maize starch granules: An X-ray powder diffraction study. Carbohydrate Polymers 1998;36(4):277-284
9.Tonukari NJ, Cassava and the future of starch, Electronic J. Biotechnol., 2004; 7:5-8.
10.Omemu AM, Akpan I, Bankole MO, Teniola OD, Hydrolysis of raw tuber starches by amylase of aspergillus niger AM07 isolated from the soil, Afr. J. Biotechnol.,2005; 4:19-25
11.Vimala B, Hariprakash B, Nambisan B, Breeding of sweet potato for enhanced nutritional status and biofortification. Fruit, Veg.Cereal Sci. Biotech. 2012; 6(1):93-105.
12.Woolfe JA. Sweet Potato: An Untapped Food Resource, Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press, 1992, p. 643.
13.Huang AS, Tanudjaja L, Lum D, The Content of beta-carotene and dietary fibre in 18 sweet potato varieties grown in Hawaii. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 1999; 12:147-151.
14.Low J, Walker T, Hijmans R. The potential impact of orange-fleshed sweet potatoes on vitamin A intake in Sub-Saharan Africa. The VITAA Project, vitamin A and orange-fleshed sweet potatoes in Sub-Saharan Africa, Nairobi, Kenya, 2007. Available online: http://www.pdfs.semanticscholrs.org. Accessed on 26/05//2020.
15.Torres AF, Slegers PM, Noordan - Boot CMM, Dolstra DV, Louis VB, Anton JBV, Richard GFT, Luisa M, Maize feed stocks with improved digestibility reduce the costs and environmental impacts of biomass pretreatment and saccharification. Biotechnology for biofuels, 2016; 9:63.
16.Halford GM, Lordkipanidzé M, Watson SP, 50 th anniversary of the discovery of ibuprofen: an interview with Dr. Stewart Adams. Platelets, 2012; 23 (6):415–22
17.Shailender Mohan, Compression physics of pharmaceutical powders: a review. Int. J Pharm Sci. Res, 2012, 3(6): 1580-1592.
18.Aly Nada, Bernd W. Mueller, Saleh M. Al-Saidan, Improving the physical and chemical properties of ibuprofen. Pharmaceutical Technology, 2005; 29:11
19.Kirchheiner J, Brockmöller J, Clinical consequences of cytochrome P450 2C9 polymorphisms. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2005; 77:1-16.
20.Joe Tucci, Emily Bandiera, Rima Darwiche, Zeljko Medos, Robert Nashed, David Trinh Paracetamol and ibuprofen for paediatric pain and fever. Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, 2009; 39(3): =223-225.
21.WHO List of Essential Medicines (April 2013) http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/essentialmedicines /en/ Retrieved 11th August, 2019.
22.Knutson, C. A., Evaluation of variations in amylose-iodine absorbance spectra. Carbohydr. Polym. 1999; 42, 65 –72.
23.Kornblum SS, Stoopak SB. A New Tablet Disintegrant Agent Crosslinked Polyvinylpyrrolidone, J. Pharm. Sci., 1973; 62(1):43–49.
24.Bowen EF, Vadino AW. A simple method for differentiating starches. Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 1984; 10:505–511
25.Ansel CH, Popovich NG, Allen LV. Ansel's pharmaceutical dosage forms and drug delivery systems. New York: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, New York. 2005; 189.
26.Odeku OA, Awe OO, Popoola B, Odeniyi MA, Itiola OA. Compression & mechanical properties of tablet formulations containing corn, sweet potato and cocoyam starches as binders, Pharm. Technol., 2005; 29(4): 82-90.
27.Jones TM, Pilpel N, The flow properties of granular magnesia. J. Pharm. Pharmacol, 1996; 18: 81-93.
28.Staniforth JN, “Powder Flow” In: Aulton, M.E., Pharmaceutics: The Science of Dosage Form Design, ELBS, Churchill Livingstone, London: 1988, p. 105.
29.Neuman SB, The Flow Properties of Powders, Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Academic Press, London: 1967, pp. 181 – 188.
30.British Pharmacopoeia, Vol.II, Her Majesty Stationary Office, University Press, Cambridge, 2012; A326 - 327.
31.Vargas-Aguilar P, Flours and starches made from cassava (yuca), yam, sweet potatoes and ñampi: functional properties and possible applications in the food industry. Tecnología en Marcha. Edición especial ingles: 2016; 86-94.
32.Kunle OO, Starch source and its impact on Pharmaceutical Applications, Intech, 2019, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.89811
33.Thoorens G, Krier F, Leclercq B, Evrad B, Microcrystalline cellulose, a direct compression binder in a quality by design environment - A review. Int. J. Pharmaceutics, 2014; 473:64-72
34.United States Pharmacopoeia, The United States Pharmacopoeial Convention, Rockville, USA, 2009, pp.358, 688-689.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).