In-vitro anti-malarial activity of Chikadoma plant from the rainforest of Southern Nigeria
Background: Malaria remains a life-threatening tropical disease. Due to the development of resistance to the commonly available orthodox antimalarials which of course, poses a great challenge in malaria-controlling-program, alternative and complementary approach becomes imperative thereby making phytotherapy a research focus. Objectives: To investigate the effect of chikadoma plant using its methanol leaf extract against a plasmodium-mediated tropical disease, malaria. Materials and Methods: The culture samples of Plasmodium (P.) falciparum from 20 symptomatic adult outpatients were used in the antimalarial in-vitro test. For cultivation of P. falciparum, the culture medium employed was Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640. Optical microscopy was used for parasite quantification in the performance of antiplasmodial in-vitro assays. The leaf extract of chikadoma dissolved in dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) was the treatment, prepared into 7 different levels of concentration (3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL) while culture medium with the malarial parasite alone served as negative control. Micromalarial culture preceded by culture synchronized with sorbitol 5%, were divided into “control” and “treated groups”, followed by incubation in CO2 candle jar at 370C for 72 h. The percentage of parasitemia was measured 8 h, showing the activity of the extract on P. falciparum stages of proliferation. Thin blood smear from the erythrocytes layer was made and stained with 10% Giemsa for 30 mins to estimate the parasitemia. The antimalarial activity of the extract was calculated using Probit analysis by counting the 50% growth inhibition (IC50). Results: The growth of P. falciparum was inhibited by the extract on mature schizont stage; and the IC50 of the extract after 40 h incubation was 3.0 mg/mL. Conclusion: The leaf extract of chikadoma significantly has antimalarial effect in-vitro against P. falciparum.
Keywords: Chikadoma; Lupinus arboreus; antimalarial activity; tropical disease; Nigeria.
 Sutanto I, Ismid IS, Syraifuddin PK, Sungkar S. Medical Parasitology, 4th ed., Jakarta: Medical Faculty of University of Indonesia Publishers, 2008; p. 221-231.
 Schmidt IJ, Khalid SA, Romanha AJ, Alves TMA, Biavatti W, Brun R et al. The potential of secondary metabolites from plants as drugs or leads against protozoan neglected diseases-part 1. Curr Med Chem. 2012; 19:2128
 Newman DJ, Cragg GM. Natural products as sources of new drugs over the 30 years from 1981 to 2010, J Nat Prod. 2012; 75:311.
 Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational phytotherapy. A physician’s guide to herbal medicine. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1998; p. 5-8.
 Adjanohoun E, Ahiyi M, Ake-Assi L, Dramane K, Elewude J, Foduju S et al. Traditional Medicine and pharmacopoeia contribution to ethnobotanical and floristic studies in Western Nigeria. Lagos: OAU/STRC Publications, 1991; p. 149
 Adeyemi AA, Gbolade AA. Anti-anaemic activity of Spondias mombin and Khaya grandifoliola aqueous extracts on rats. J Pharm Biores. 2006; 3(2):94-97.
 Isabang N, Fokou PVT, Tchokouaha LRY, Noguem B, Bakamga-via I, Nguefi MSD, et al. Ethnopharmacological survey of Annocaceae medicinal plants used to treat malaria in four areas of Cameroon. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 139:171-180.
 Lima RBS, Rocha e Silva LF, Melo MRS, Costa JS, Ficanco NS, Lima ES, et al. In-vitro and in-vivo anti-malarial activity of plants from the Brazilian amazon. Malar J. 2015; 14:508.
 Yusuf H, Maryatun S. The antimalarial activity of the leaf extract of the Neem leaves (Azadiratcha indica, A. Juss) on Plasmodium falciparum in-vitro. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference Sayiah Kuala University Banda Aceh, Indonesia 2011; p. 217
 Pickart AJ, Miller LD. Yellow bush lupin invasion in Northern California coastal dunes. Ecological impacts and manual restriction techniques. Restoration Ecology 1998; 6:59-68.
 Ohadoma SC. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Lupinus arboreus. Euro J. Pharm Med Res. 2018; 5(3):30-34.
 Ohadoma SC, Osuala FN, Nnatuanya IN. Spasmolytic activity of methanol leaf extract of Lupinus arboreus in guinea pig ileum. Euro J. Pharm Med Res., 2016; 3(7):50-52.
 Ohadoma SC, Lawal BAS, Chukwu LC. Anti-arthritic activity of methanol leaf extracts of Chikadoma in complete freud’s adjunct-induced arthritic rats. British J Med & Health Sci. 2019; 1(2):43-46.
 Lough BJ. Isolation and characterization of developing seed of Lupinus arboreus. J Pharmacol, 1992; 12(1):22-26.
 Rocha e Silva LF, Magalhaes PM, Costa MR, Alecrim MG, Chaves FC, Hidalgo AF et al. In-vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Welch field isolates to infusions prepared from Artemisia annua L. cultivated in the Brazilian Amazon. Mem Insti Oswaldo Cruz. 2012; 107:859-866.
 Ohadoma SC, Akuodor GC, Amazu LU, Michael HU. Quantitative estimation of total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of ethylacetate fraction of Chikadoma as a bactericidal agent. Asian J Sci & Tech. 2020; 11 (6):11012-11014.
 Okokon JE, Obot AU, Mohanakrishnan D, Mittal G, Sahal D. Antimalarial and antiplasmodial activity of leaf extract of Alchornea laxiflora. J Herbs Spices Med. Plants 2017; 23 (2):128-141.
 Khai B, Vlark J, Ling T, Connelly M, Medina-Bolivar F, Rivas F. Antimalarial evaluation of the chemical constituents of hairy root culture of Bixa orellana L. Molecules. 2014; 19:756.
 Trease GE. A textbook of pharmacognosy. 9th ed. London: W.B Saunders, 1996; p.201.
 Kar A. Pharmacognosy and pharmacobiotechnology, 2nd ed. New Delhi: New Age Publishers, 2007; p. 449.
 Torres ZE, Silveira E, Rocha e silva LF, Lima ES, Vasconcellos MC, Uchoa DA, et al. Chemical composition of Aspidosperma ulei Markgr and antiplasmodial activity of selected indole alkaloids. Molecules. 2013; 18:6281-6297.
 Okokon JE, Antia BS, Mohanakrishnan D, Sahal D. Antimalarial and antiplasmodial activity of husk extract and fractions of Zea mays. Pharm Biol. 2017; 1394-1400.
 Dong J, Cai L, Zhu X, Huang X, Yin T, Fang H, et al. Antioxidant activities and phenolic compounds of corn husk, corn cob and stigma maydis. J Braz Chem Soc. 2014; 25:1956-1964.
 Barliana MI, Suradji EW, Abdulah R, Diantini A, Hatabu T, Nakajima-Shimada J, et al. Antiplasmodial properties of kaempferol-3-0-rhamnoside isolated from the leaves of Schima wallachii against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. Biomed Rep. 2014; 2:579-583.
 Alshawsh MA. Assessment of antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum and phytochemical screening of some Yemeni medicinal plants 2007. http:/creativecommons.org/lincences/by-ac/12.0/uk
 Pereira TB, Rocha e Silva LF, Amorin RC, Melo MR, Souza RC, Eberlin MN, et al. In-vitro and in-vivo antimalarial activity of limonoids isolated from the residual seed biomass from Carapa guianensis (Andiroba) oil production. Malar J. 2014; 13:317.
 Ohadoma SC, Eban LK. Antioxidant and free radical scavenger effects of methanol leaf extract of Lupinus arboreus. Euro J. Biomed Pharm Sci. 2018; 5(1):70-73.
 Chokchaisiri R, Chaichompoo W, Chalermglin R, Suksamran A. Potent antiplasmodial alkaloids and flavonoids from Dasymaschalon acuminatum. Rec Nat Prod. 2015; 9:243-246.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0). that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).