Ethnopharmacological Study and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. Extracts
Ocimum basilicum L. (O. basilicum L.) with the vernacular name of Reihan or Reyhan is a medicinal plant from the Lamiaceae family, widely used in traditional Algerian medicine. The aim of the present study was to research the traditional uses and the mode of application of O. basilicum L. in the M’sila region (northern Algeria), to estimate the content of polyphenols and flavonoids in methanolic and aqueous extracts of this plant and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these extracts by the 2, 2’-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH). The results of ethnopharmacological survey showed that decoction of leaves in fresh or dry form is the most frequent use. The yields of extracts were 28.67% and 15.24% for the methanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of different compounds such as polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins and essential oils. The results demonstrated that the methanolic extract presented a high polyphenols and flavonoids contents with 225.99 ± 3.13 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry extract and 83.63 ± 3.48 mg quercetin equivalent/g dry extract, respectively. The evaluation of the antioxidant power is carried out using the method of trapping of the free radical DPPH, with BHT as reference antioxidant. The results showed that the methanolic extract has a significant free radical scavenging capacity with an IC50 value of 304.82 ± 24.15 µg/ml; which was greater than the trapping capacity of BHT (IC50 = 327.46 ± 13.11 µg/ml). Whereas, the aqueous extract has a weaker effect with an IC50 value of 2122.81 ± 107.77 µg/ml.
Keywords: BHT, DPPH, flavonoids, Ocimum basilicum L., polyphenols.
2. Di Pietro A, Conseil G, Pérez-Victoria JM, Dayan G, Baubichon-Cortay H, Trompier D, Stenfels E, Jault JM, de Wet H, Maitrejean M, Comte G, Boumendjel A, Mariotte AM, Dumontet C, McIntosh DB, Goffeau A, Castanys S, Gamarro F, Barron D. Modulation by flavonoids of cell multidrug resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein and related ABC transporters. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 2002; 59:307–322.
3. Morton LW, Abu-Amsha Caccetta R, Puddey IB, Croft KD. Chemistry and biological effects of dietary phenolic compounds: Relevance to cardiovascular disease. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 2000; 27:152–159.
4. Benabdallah H, Gharzouli K, Khennouf S, Amira S, Soufane, S. Phytochemical analysis and anti-lipid peroxidation activity of Tamarix Africana L. extracts. Global Journal of Research on Medicinal Plants & Indigenous Medicine, 2014; 3(7):278–285.
5. Leal LK,Costa MF, Pitombeira M, Barroso VM, Silveira ER, Canuto KM, Viana GS, Mechanisms underlying the relaxation induced by isokaemp-feride from Amburana cearensis in the guinea-pig isolated trachea. Life and Science, 2006; 79:98–104.
6. Benabdallah H, Gharzouli K. Effects of flavone on the contractile activity of the circular smooth muscle of the rabbit middle colon in vitro. European Journal of Pharmacology, 2015; 760:20–26.
7. Cheng YC, Sheen JM, Hu WL, Hung YC. Polyphenols and Oxidative Stress in Atherosclerosis-Related Ischemic Heart Disease and Stroke. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2017; 2017:1-16.
8. Silveira AC, Dias JP, Santos VM, Oliveira PF, Alves MG, Rato L, Silva BM. The Action of Polyphenols in Diabetes Mellitus and Alzheimer's Disease: A Common Agent for Overlapping Pathologies. Current Neuropharmacology, 2019; 17(7):590–613.
9. Tangney C, Rasmussen HE. Polyphenols, Inflammation, and Cardiovascular Disease. Current Atherosclerosis Reports, 2013; 15(5):324.
10. Baritaux O, Richard H, Touche J, Derbesy M. Effects of drying and storage of herbs and spices on the essential oil. Part I. Basil. Ocimum basilicum L. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 1992; 7:267–271.
11. Baytop T. Treatment with Plants in Turkey, Istanbul, Turkey, Istanbul University Press, 1984; No. 3255.
12. Markham KR. Techniques of Flavonoid Identification. London Academic Press, Chap. 1 and 2; 1982. P. 113.
13. Dohou N, Yamni K, Gmira N, Idrissi Hassani LM. Etude de polyphénols des feuilles d’une endémique ibéro Marocaine, Thymelaea lythroides. Acta Botanica Malacitana, 2004; 29:233-239.
14. N’guessan K, Kaja B, Zirihi Guédé N, Traoré D, Aké-Assi L. Screening phytochimique de quelques plantes médicinales ivoiriennes utilisées en pays Krobou (Agboville, Côte-d’Ivoire). Sciences and Nature, 2009; 6(1):1-15.
15. Li HB, Cheng KW, Wong CC, Fan KW, Chen F, Jiang Y. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of different fractions of selected microalgae. Food and Chemistry, 2007; 102:771-776.
16. Bahorun T, Gressier B, Trotin F, Brunete C, Dine T, Vasseur J, Gazin JC, Pinkas M, Luycky M, Gazin M. Oxygen species scavenging activity of phenolic extracts from hawthorn fresh plant organs and pharmaceutical preparations. Arzneimittel-Forschung, 1996; 46:1086-1089.
17. Sanchez-Moreno C, Larrauri JA, Saura-Calixto FA. Procedure to measure the antiradical efficiency of polyphenols. Journal of Sciences and Food Agriculture, 1998; 76:270.
18. Oliveira JS, Porto LA, Estevam CS, Siqueira RS, Alves PB, Niculau ES, Blank AF,Almeida RN, Marchioro M, Quintans-Juniorli LJ. Phytochemical screening and anticonvulsant property of Ocimum basilicum leaf essential oil. Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas, 2009; 8(3):195–202.
19. Nadkarni KM. Indian Plants and Drugs. New Delhi: Srishti Book Distributors, 2005; P, 263.
20. Phippen WB, Simon JE. Anthocyanins in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1998; 46: 1734-1738.
21. Sakr SA, Al-Amoudi WM. Effect of leave extract of Ocimum basilicum on delta-methrin induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in albino rats. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2012; 02(05):22-27.
22. Adeola SA, Folorunso OS, Amisu K O. Antimicrobial Activity of Ocimum basilicum and its Inhibition on the Characterized and Partially Purified Extracellular Protease of Salmonella typhimurium. Research Journal of Biology, 2012; 2(5):138-144.
23. Al-Mashri AY, Khan MM, Khan HS. Genetic diversity among omani basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) landraces using RAPD markers. Journal of Agricultural Research and Development, 2013; 3(6): 094-097.
24. Özcan M, Chalchat JC. Essential oil composition of Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum minimum L. in Turkey. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 2002; 20:223-228.
25. Javanmardi J, Khalighi A, Kashi A, Bais HP, Vivanco JouM. Chemical Characterization of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Found in Local Accessions and Used in Traditional Medicines in Iran. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2002; 50:5878-5883.
26. Ismail M. Central Properties and Chemical Composition of Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil. Pharmaceutical Biology, 2006; 44(8):619-626.
27. Bougandoura N, Bendimerad N. Evaluation de l’activité antioxydante des extraits aqueux et méthanolique de Satureja calamintha ssp. Nepeta (L.) Briq. Revue. Nature & Technologie, 2013; 09:14-19.
28. Telli A, Mahboub N, Boudjeneh S, Siboukeur O, Moulti-Mati F. Optimisation des conditions d’extraction des polyphénols de dattes lyophilisées (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Variété ghars. Annales des Sciences et Technologie, 2010; 2(2) :107-114.
29. Benedec D, Vlase L, Hanganu D, Oniga I. Antioxidant potential and polyphenolic content of Romanian Ocimum basilicum. Nanomaterials and Biostructures, 2012; 7(3):1263-1270.
30. Dong JE, Ma XH, Wei Q, Peng SB, Zhang SC. Effects of growing location on the contents of secondary metabolites in the leaves of four selected superior clones of Eucommia ulmoides. Industrial Crops & Products, 2011; 34: 1607–1614.
31. Liu W, Liu J, Yin D, Zhao X. Influence of ecological factors on the production of active substances in the anti-cancer plant Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) T.S. Ying. PLoS ONE, 2015; 10(4): e0122981.
32. Lee SJ, Katumi U, Takayuki S. Lee KG. Identification of volatile components in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and thyme leaves (Thymus vulgaris L.) and their antioxidant properties. Food Chemistry, 2005; 91:131-137.
33. Razavi SMA, Mortazavi SA, Matia-Merino L, Hosseini-Parvar SH, Motamedzadegan A, Khanipour E. Optimisation study of gum extraction from Basil seeds (Ocimum basilicum L.). International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 2009; 44:1755-1762.
34. Dinanath DP, Dnyandeo KM, Gurumeet C W. Antibacterial and Antioxidant study of Ocimum basilicum Labiatae (sweet basil). Journal of Advanced Pharmacy Education & Research, 2011; 2:104-112.
35. Kaurinovic B, Popovic M, Vlaisavljevic S, Trivic S. Antioxidant Capacity of Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. Extracts. Molecules, 2011; 16:7401-7414.
36. Ćetković GS, Čanadanović-Brunet J, Djilas SM, Tumbas VT, Markov SL, Cetković DD. Antioxidant Potential, Lipid Peroxidation Inhibition and Antimicrobial Activities of Satureja Montana L. subsp. Kitaibelii Extracts. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2007; 8(10):1013-1027.
37. Laib I. Etude des activités antioxydante et antifongique de l’huile essentielle des fleurs sèches de Lavandula officinalis. Nature & Technologie, 2012; 07:44-52.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).