Public’s Knowledge and Beliefs towards Universal Safety Precautions during COVID-19 Pandemic in Nepal: A web-based Cross-Sectional Study

  • Deependra Prasad Sarraf Associate Professor, Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal
  • Pramendra Prasad Gupta Associate Professor, Department of General Practice and Emergency Medicine, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal
  • Shashi Keshwar Assistant Professor, Department of Oral Pathology, College of Dental Surgery, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal

Abstract

Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been declared as a global pandemic. In the absence of vaccines or specific drugs for COVID-19, a better understanding and implementation of universal safety precautions is essential for the prevention of COVID-19 virus infection globally. People’s adherence to the universal precautions safety measures against COVID-19 is essential which is largely affected by their knowledge and belief.


Objectives: To assess the public’s knowledge and belief toward the universal safety precautions during COVID-19 pandemic.


Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional web-based online survey was conducted in general public in Nepal during April, 2020. A self-designed questionnaire was prepared using Google forms via docs.google.com/forms for the collection of the data. The study participants were grouped into two categories according to their level of knowledge: excellent (score 80% and above) and average (score less than 80%). Descriptive statistics mean, frequency and percentage were used to analyze the data.


Results: Out of 228, majority were male (90.4%) and aged 36-45 years (36%). Mean knowledge score was 4.68±1.41. Most of them (57.9%) had average knowledge. Average of the correct responses in the knowledge and belief domain were found to be 66.9% and 71.2% respectively. Majority of the public (55.3%) believed that home-made alcohol-based hand sanitizer is equally effective to factory-made standard sanitizer against COVID-19 virus.


Conclusion: Knowledge toward universal safety precautions against COVID-19 were average among the majority of the public. There was gap between knowledge and belief domain. There is an unmet need for long term educational interventions among the public regarding the preventive methods against COVID-19.


Keywords: Knowledge; Belief; COVID-19; Nepal; Public; Universal safety precautions.

Keywords: Knowledge, Belief, COVID-19, Public, Nepal, Universal safety precautions

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Deependra Prasad Sarraf, Associate Professor, Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal

Associate Professor, Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal

Pramendra Prasad Gupta, Associate Professor, Department of General Practice and Emergency Medicine, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal

Associate Professor, Department of General Practice and Emergency Medicine, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal

Shashi Keshwar, Assistant Professor, Department of Oral Pathology, College of Dental Surgery, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal

Assistant Professor, Department of Oral Pathology, College of Dental Surgery, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal

References

1. Health topics: Coronavirus. WHO, Geneva, 2020. [Available at https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus#tab=tab_1 (Accessed on 14th May, 2020)]
2. Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2020; 382:1199-207.
3. Li H, Liu SM, Yu XH, Tang SL, Tang CK. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): current status and future perspectives. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020;105951.
4. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak situation. WHO, 2020, Geneva. [Available at https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019 (Accessed on 14th May, 2020)]
5. Cascella M, Rajnik M, Cuomo A, et al. Features, Evaluation and Treatment Coronavirus (COVID-19) [Updated 2020 Apr 6]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020.
6. Shrestha R, Shrestha S, Khanal P, KC B. Nepal's first case of COVID-19 and public health response. J Travel Med. 2020; 27(3):taaa024.
7. COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic. Worldometer. [Available at https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/#countries (Accessed on 20th May, 2020)
8. Press Release. Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2020. [Available at http://moha.gov.np/en/post/press-release-31 (Accessed on 20th May, 2020)]
9. Infection Prevention and Control during health care when Novel Coronavirus (nCoV) infection is suspected. World Health Organization: Geneva, 2020.
10. Zhong BL, Luo W, Li HM, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among Chinese residents during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak: a quick online cross-sectional survey. Int J Biol Sci. 2020; 16(10):1745‐52.
11. Person B, Sy F, Holton K, Govert B, Liang A, National Center for Infectious Diseases SCOT. Fear and stigma: the epidemic within the SARS outbreak. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004; 10:358-63.
12. Wolf MS, Serper M, Opsasnick L, O'Conor RM, Curtis LM, Benavente JY et al. Awareness, Attitudes, and Actions Related to COVID-19 Among Adults With Chronic Conditions at the Onset of the U.S. Outbreak: A Cross-sectional Survey. Ann Intern Med. 2020 Apr 9.
13. Sai Krishna Gudi, Krishna Undela, Rajesh Venkataraman, Uday Venkat Mateti, Manik Chhabra, Sanath Nyamagoud, Komal Krishna Tiwari. Knowledge and Beliefs towards Universal Safety Precautions to flatten the curve during Novel Coronavirus Disease (nCOVID-19) Pandemic among general Public in India: Explorations from a National Perspective. medRxiv 2020.03.31.20047126.
14. Ali Al-Hazmi, Ibrahim Gosadi, Ali Somily, Sarah Alsubaie, Abdulaziz Bin Saeed. Knowledge, attitude and practice of secondary schools and university students toward Middle East Respiratory Syndrome epidemic in Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 2018; 25:572-7.
15. Kaliyaperumal K. Guideline for conducting a knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) study. AECS illumination. 2004; 4:7-9.
16. World Medical Association. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. JAMA. 2013; 310(20):2191‐4.
17. Eysenbach G. Improving the quality of Web surveys: the Checklist for Reporting Results of Internet E-Surveys (CHERRIES). J Med Internet Res 2004; 6(3):e34.
18. Larson EL, Early E, Cloonan P, Sugrue S, Parides M. 2000. An organizational climate intervention associated with increased handwashing and decreased nosocomial infections. Behav Med. 26(1):14–22.
19. Questions and answers on coronaviruses. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2020. [Available at https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-acoronaviruses. (Accessed on May 20, 2020)].
20. Kakodkar P, Kaka N, Baig M. A Comprehensive Literature Review on the Clinical Presentation, and Management of the Pandemic Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Cureus. 2020; 12(4): e7560.
21. Hand Hygiene Recommendations. Coronavirus Disease 2019, Centers for Disease control and Prevention, Department of Health and Human Services. USA, 2020. [Available at https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/hand-hygiene.html (Accessed on 20th May, 2020) ]
22. Qualls N, Levitt A, Kanade N, Wright-Jegede N, Dopson S, Biggerstaff M, et al. Community Mitigation Guidelines to Prevent Pandemic Influenza - United States, 2017. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2017; 66(1):1-34.
23. Williams N. Social Distancing in the Covid-19 Pandemic. Occup Med (Lond). 2020; kqaa072.
24. Cetron M, Landwirth J. Public health and ethical considerations in planning for quarantine. Yale J Biol Med. 2005; 78(5):329-34.
25. Wilder-Smith A, Freedman DO. Isolation, quarantine, social distancing and community containment: pivotal role for old-style public health measures in the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak. J Travel Med. 2020; 27(2): taaa020.
26. Szarpak L, Smereka J, Filipiak KJ, Ladny JR, Jaguszewski M. Cloth Masks Versus Medical Masks for COVID-19 Protection [published online ahead of print, 2020 Apr 14]. Cardiol J. 2020.
27. Use of Cloth Face Coverings to Help Slow the Spread of COVID-19. CDC, USA, 2020. [Available at https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/diy-cloth-face-coverings.html (Accessed on May 22, 2020)]
28. Desai AN, Aronoff DM. Masks and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) [published online ahead of print, 2020 Apr 17]. JAMA. 2020;
29. Feng S, Shen C, Xia N, Song W, Fan M, Cowling BJ. Rational use of face masks in the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet Respir Med. 2020; 8(5):434‐6.
30. Advice on the use of masks the community, during home care and in health care settings in the context of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak. WHO, 2020. [Available at https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/documents/advice-on-the-use-of-masks-2019-ncov.pdf]
31. Desai AN, Patel P. Stopping the Spread of COVID-19 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Mar 20]. JAMA. 2020.
Statistics
9 Views | 7 Downloads
How to Cite
1.
Sarraf D, Gupta P, Keshwar S. Public’s Knowledge and Beliefs towards Universal Safety Precautions during COVID-19 Pandemic in Nepal: A web-based Cross-Sectional Study. JDDT [Internet]. 15Jun.2020 [cited 2Jul.2020];10(3-s):133-41. Available from: http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4175