Biological Markers as a Novel Approach in Clinical Diagnosis and Management of Diseases
The adoption and use of biological marker also known as biomarkers in clinical studies and management of disease conditions spans over 40 years. Biological marker are measurable biochemical or molecular alterations that can be adopted as indicator of normal biological or responses to the action of pathogen or pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention. Molecules, macro and micro molecules, metabolites, and chemical compounds from the body adopted for use in predicting and monitoring health outcomes are constant from individual to another which qualify them as standard biomarker parameters. Use of biological markers spans clinical screening of an underlying cause of disease, prognosis, predisposition to a disease condition and predicting outcomes of treatment. In the environment, biological markers can be applied to determine the effects of xenobiotic chemicals and reaction effect on living cell. A good marker while being specific, should be easy to measure, cheap, provide correct measurement and outcomes. The objective of this review paper is highlight the different types of biological markers and areas where they are applicable.
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