COVID-19: A Global Pandemic of 21st Century

  • Prabhakar Budholiya College of Pharmacy Sri Satya Sai University of Technology and Medical Sciences, Sehore (M.P.), India
  • Abdul Wajid Ali College of Pharmacy Sri Satya Sai University of Technology and Medical Sciences, Sehore (M.P.), India
  • Deepshikha Gunwan College of Pharmacy Sri Satya Sai University of Technology and Medical Sciences, Sehore (M.P.), India
  • Sana Sahil College of Pharmacy Sri Satya Sai University of Technology and Medical Sciences, Sehore (M.P.), India
  • C.K. Tyagi College of Pharmacy Sri Satya Sai University of Technology and Medical Sciences, Sehore (M.P.), India
  • Hemant Sharma College of Pharmacy Sri Satya Sai University of Technology and Medical Sciences, Sehore (M.P.), India

Abstract

In last of 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention started monitoring the outbreak of a new corona virus, SARS-CoV-2, which causes the respiratory illness now known as COVID-19. Authorities first identified the virus in Wuhan, China. More than 82542 case of Corona virus in China at 31 March 2020. Health authorities have identified many other people with COVID-19 around the world. On 31 March 2020, the virus spread more than 750890 People in the World. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared a public health emergency relating to COVID-19. Since then, this strain has been diagnosed in several residents of world. The CDC have advised that it is likely to spread to more people. COVID-19 has affected at least 213 countries or territories or areas. The first people with COVID-19 had links to an animal and seafood market. This fact suggested that animals initially transmitted the virus to humans. However, people with a more recent diagnosis had no connections with or exposure to the market, confirming that humans can pass the virus to each other. Corona viruses will infect most people at some time during their lifetime. Corona viruses can mutate effectively, which makes them so contagious. Information on the virus is scarce at present. In the past, respiratory conditions that develop from corona viruses, such as SARS and MERS, have spread through close contacts. On 17 February 2020, the Director-General of the WHO presented at a media briefing the following updates on how often the symptoms of COVID-19.However, while some viruses are highly contagious, it is less clear how rapidly corona viruses will spread. Symptoms vary from person-to-person with COVID-19. It may produce few or no symptoms. However, it can also lead to severe illness and may be fatal. On 11 March 2020, WHO declared Novel Corona virus Disease (COVID-19) outbreak as a Pandemic.


Keywords: WHO, ICMR, SARS-CoV-2, Bats, Wuhan City, Pneumonia, Respiratory Infection, Pandemic

Keywords: WHO, ICMR, SARS-CoV-2, Pneumonia, Respiratory Infection, Pandemic, Bats

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Prabhakar Budholiya, College of Pharmacy Sri Satya Sai University of Technology and Medical Sciences, Sehore (M.P.), India

College of Pharmacy Sri Satya Sai University of Technology and Medical Sciences, Sehore (M.P.), India

Abdul Wajid Ali, College of Pharmacy Sri Satya Sai University of Technology and Medical Sciences, Sehore (M.P.), India

College of Pharmacy Sri Satya Sai University of Technology and Medical Sciences, Sehore (M.P.), India

Deepshikha Gunwan, College of Pharmacy Sri Satya Sai University of Technology and Medical Sciences, Sehore (M.P.), India

College of Pharmacy Sri Satya Sai University of Technology and Medical Sciences, Sehore (M.P.), India

Sana Sahil, College of Pharmacy Sri Satya Sai University of Technology and Medical Sciences, Sehore (M.P.), India

College of Pharmacy Sri Satya Sai University of Technology and Medical Sciences, Sehore (M.P.), India

C.K. Tyagi, College of Pharmacy Sri Satya Sai University of Technology and Medical Sciences, Sehore (M.P.), India

College of Pharmacy Sri Satya Sai University of Technology and Medical Sciences, Sehore (M.P.), India

Hemant Sharma, College of Pharmacy Sri Satya Sai University of Technology and Medical Sciences, Sehore (M.P.), India

College of Pharmacy Sri Satya Sai University of Technology and Medical Sciences, Sehore (M.P.), India

References

1. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel corona virus in Wuhan, China. Lancet (London, England). 2020; 395:497-506.
2. Liu Y, Gayle AA, Wilder-Smith A, Rocklov J. The reproductive number of COVID-19 is higher compared to SARS corona virus. J Travel Med. 2020.
3. Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel corona virus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet. 2020.
4. Organization WHO. Corona virus disease 2019(COVID-19) Situation Report-71. 2020.
5. Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Get the data Created with Datawrapper .
6. Tyrrell DA, Bynoe ML. Cultivation of viruses from a high proportion of patients with colds. Lancet. 1966;1:76–77.
7. Hamre D, Procknow JJ. A new virus isolated from the human respiratory tract. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1966; 121:190–193.
8. McIntosh K, Dees JH, Becker WB, Kapikian AZ, Chanock RM. Recovery in tracheal organ cultures of novel viruses from patients with respiratory disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1967; 57:933–940.
9. Almeida JD, Tyrrell DA. The morphology of three previously uncharacterized human respiratory viruses that grow in organ culture. J Gen Virol. 1967; 1:175–178.
10. McIntosh K, Becker WB, Chanock RM. Growth in suckling-mouse brain of “IBV-like” viruses from patients with upper respiratory tract disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1967; 58:2268–2273.
11. Witte KH, Tajima M, Easterday BC. Morphologic characteristics and nucleic acid type of transmissible gastroenteritis virus of pigs. Arch Gesamte Virusforsch. 1968; 23:53–70.
12.Tyrrell DA, Almeida JD, Cunningham CH, et al. Coronaviridae. Intervirology. 1975; 5:76–82.
13. McIntosh K, Kapikian AZ, Turner HC, Hartley JW, Parrott RH, Chanock RM. Seroepidemiologic studies of coronavirus infection in adults and children. Am J Epidemiol. 1970; 91:585–592.
14. Monto AS. Medical reviews: coronaviruses. Yale J Biol Med. 1974; 47:234–251.
15. Callow KA, Parry HF, Sergeant M, Tyrrell DA. The time course of the immune response to experimental coronavirus infection of man. Epidemiol Infect. 1990; 105:435–446.
16.Bradburne AF. Antigenic relationships amongst coronaviruses. Archiv Gesamte Virusforsch. 1970; 31:352–364.
17. McIntosh K, Kapikian AZ, Hardison KA, Hartley JW, Chanock RM. Antigenic relationships among the coronaviruses of man and between human and animal coronaviruses. J Immunol. 1969;102:1109–1118.
18. Bradburne AF, Bynoe ML, Tyrrell DA. Effects of a “new” human respiratory virus in volunteers. Br Med J. 1967; 3:767–769.
19. Bradburne AF, Somerset BA. Coronative antibody tires in sera of healthy adults and experimentally infected volunteers. J Hyg. 1972; 70:235–244.
20. McIntosh K, Chao RK, Krause HE, Wasil R, Mocega HE. Coronavirus infection in acute lower respiratory tract disease of infants . J Infect Dis. 1974; 130:502–507.
21. Wenzel RP, Hendley JO, Davies JA, Gwaltney JM Jr., Mufson MA. Coronavirus infections in military recruits. Three-year study with coronavirus strains OC43 and 229E. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1974; 109:621–624.
22. McIntosh K, Ellis EF, Hoffman LS, Lybass TG, Eller JJ, Fulginiti VA. Association of viral and bacterial respiratory infection with exacerbations of wheezing in young asthmatic children. Chest. 1973; 63(suppl):43S.
23. Falsey AR, McCann RM, Hall WJ, et al. The “common cold” in frail older persons: impact of rhinovirus and coronavirus in a senior daycare center. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1997;45:706–711.
24. Falsey AR, Walsh EE, Hayden FG, et al. Rhinovirus and coronavirus infection-associated hospitalizations among older adults. J Infect Dis. 2002;185:1338–1341.
25. Haring J, Pearlman S. Mouse hepatitis virus. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2001;4:462–466.
26. Lai MM, Holmes KV. Coronaviridae: the viruses and their replication. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM, eds. Fields Virology. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven, 2001
27. Drexler, J.F., Gloza-Rausch, F., Glende, J., Corman, V.M., Muth,D., Goettsche, M., Seebens, A., Niedrig, M., Pfefferle, S., Yor-danov, S., Zhelyazkov, L., Hermanns, U., Vallo, P., Lukashev, A.,Muller, M.A., Deng, H., Herrler, G., Drosten, C., Genomic characterization of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related corona virus in European bats and classification of coronaviruses based on partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene sequences. J. Virol, 2010; 84:11336–11349.
28. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). October 2018. Archived from the original on 2019-05-14. Retrieved 2020-01-24.
29. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 2020-01-24.
30. Fan Y, Zhao K, Shi ZL, Zhou P. "Bat Coronaviruses in China". Viruses. 2019; 11(3):210. doi:10.3390/v11030210
31. de Groot RJ, Baker SC, Baric R, Enjuanes L, Gorbalenya AE, Holmes KV, Perlman S, Poon L, Rottier PJ, Talbot PJ, Woo PC, Ziebuhr J (2011). "Family Coronaviridae". In King AM, Lefkowitz E, Adams MJ, Carstens EB, International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, International Union of Microbiological Societies. Virology Division (eds.). Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Oxford: Elsevier. pp. 806–28. ISBN 978-0-12-384684-6.
32. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (2010-08-24). "ICTV Master Species List 2009—v10" (xls).
33. Wertheim, Joel O.; Chu, Daniel K. W.; Peiris, Joseph S. M.; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.; Poon, Leo L. M. "A Case for the Ancient Origin of Coronaviruses". Journal of Virology. 2013; 87(12):7039–7045.
34.Li F, Li W, Farzan M, Harrison SC (September 2005). "Structure of SARS corona virus spike receptor-binding domain complexed with receptor". Science. 309 (5742): 1864–68.
35."Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on Corona virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". World Health Organization. February 2020.
36. Oh MD, Park WB, Park SW, Choe PG, Bang JH, Song KH, et al. "Middle East respiratory syndrome: what we learned from the 2015 outbreak in the Republic of Korea". The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine. 2018; 33(2):233–246. doi:10.3904/kjim.2018.031.
37. Ñamendys-Silva SA (March 2020). "Respiratory support for patients with COVID-19 infection". The Lancet. Respiratory Medicine. doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30110-7. PMID 32145829
38. Doucleef M (2012-09-26). "Scientists Go Deep On Genes Of SARS-Like Virus". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2012-09-27. Retrieved 2012-09-27.
39. Falco M (2012-09-24). "New SARS-like virus poses medical mystery". CNN Health. Archived from the original on 2013-11-01. Retrieved 2013-03-16.
40. New SARS-like virus found in Middle East". Al-Jazeera. 2012-09-24. Archived from the original on 2013-03-09. Retrieved 2013-03-16.
41 Kelland K (2012-09-28). "New virus not spreading easily between people: WHO". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2012-11-24. Retrieved 2013-03-16.
42. Nouveau corona virus—Point de situation : Un nouveau cas d'infection confirmé Archived 8 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine (Novel corona virus—Status report: A new case of confirmed infection) 12 May 2013, social-sante.gouv.fr
43. "MERS Transmission". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2019-08-02. Archived from the original on 2019-12-07. Retrieved 2019-12-10.
44. "Novel coronavirus infection". World Health Association. 2013-05-22. Archived from the original on 2013-06-07. Retrieved 2013-05-23.
45.World Helath Organization, nCoV Situation Report-22 on 12 February, 2020. source/corona virus /situation-reports/, 2019.
46. Gralinski L.; Menachery V; Return of the Coronavirus: 2019- nCoV, Viruses, 2020; 12(2): 135.
47. Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-2019). U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
48. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html. Accessed March 26, 2020
49. CDC: "2019 Novel Corona virus (2019-nCoV), Wuhan, China,” “CDC Confirms Possible Instance of
50. Community Spread of COVID-19 in U.S.,” "Corona virus," “Corona virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19
51 Chen Z.; Zhang W.; Lu Y et. al.. From SARS-CoV to Wuhan 2019-nCoV Outbreak: Similarity of Early Epidemic and Prediction of Future Trends.: Cell Press, 2020.
52. Luk H. K., Li X., Fung J., Lau S. K., Woo P. C. (Molecular epidemiology, evolution and phylogeny of SARS Corona virus. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 2019; 71: 21-30.
53.https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/situation-reports
54. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019
55. https://www.epi-win.com/
56. Chan JF, To KK, Tse H, Jin DY, Yuen KY. Interspecies transmission and emergence of novel viruses: lessons from bats and birds. Trends Microbiol. 2013;21:544-55.
57. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, et al. A Novel Corona virus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019. The New England journal of medicine. 2020.
58. Wu A, Peng Y, Huang B, Ding X, Wang X, Niu P, et al. Genome Composition and Divergence of the Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Originating in China. Cell host & microbe. 2020.
59. Hoffmann M, Kleine-Weber H, Krüger N, Müller M, Drosten C, Pöhlmann S. The novel coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV) uses the SARS-corona virus receptor ACE2 and the cellular protease TMPRSS2 for entry into target cells. bioRxiv. 2020:2020.01.31.929042.
60. Wrapp D, Wang N, Corbett KS, Goldsmith JA, Hsieh CL, Abiona O, et al. Cryo-EM structure of the 2019-nCoV spike in the prefusion conformation. Science (New York, NY). 2020.
61. Remais J. Modelling environmentally-mediated infectious diseases of humans: transmission dynamics of schistosomiasis in China. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;673:79-98.
62. Wu JT, Leung K, Leung GM. Nowcasting and forecasting the potential domestic and international spread of the 2019-nCoV outbreak originating in Wuhan, China: a modelling study. The Lancet. 2020.
63. Majumder MaM, Kenneth D. Early Transmissibility Assessment of a Novel Corona virus in Wuhan, China. Available at SSRN. 2020.
64. Lipsitch M, Cohen T, Cooper B, Robins JM, Ma S, James L, et al. Transmission dynamics and control of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Science (New York, NY). 2003; 300:1966-70.
65. Majumder MS, Rivers C, Lofgren E, Fisman D. Estimation of MERS-Coronavirus Reproductive Number and Case Fatality Rate for the Spring 2014 Saudi Arabia Outbreak: Insights from Publicly Available Data. PLoS Curr. 2014; 6.
66. Guan W-j, Ni Z-y, Hu Y, Liang W-h, Ou C-q, He J-x, et al. Clinical characteristics of 2019 novel corona virus infection in China. 2020:2020.02.06.20020974.
67. Wu Z, McGoogan JM. Characteristics of and Important Lessons From the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in China: Summary of a Report of 72314 Cases From the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Jama. 2020.
68. Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel corona virus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet (London, England). 2020; 395:507-13.
69. Barreto ML, Teixeira MG, Carmo EH. Infectious diseases epidemiology. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2006; 60:192-5.
70. Ji W, Wang W, Zhao X, Zai J, Li X. Homologous recombination within the spike glycoprotein of the newly identified corona virus may boost cross-species transmission from snake to human. Journal of medical virology. 2020.
71. Zhang C, Zheng W, Huang X, Bell EW, Zhou X, Zhang Y. Protein structure and sequence re-analysis of 2019-nCoV genome does not indicate snakes as its intermediate host or the unique similarity between its spike protein insertions and HIV-1. 2020:2020.02.04.933135.
72. Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W, et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new corona virus of probable bat origin. Nature. 2020.
73. Xu X, Chen P, Wang J, Feng J, Zhou H, Li X, et al. Evolution of the novel corona virus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modeling of its spike protein for risk of human transmission. Sci China Life Sci. 2020.
74. Wang J, Zhao S, Liu M, Zhao Z, Xu Y, Wang P, et al. ACE2 expression by colonic epithelial cells is associated with viral infection, immunity and energy metabolism. 2020:2020.02.05.20020545.
75. Xiao F, Tang M, Zheng X, Li C, He J, Hong Z, et al. Evidence for gastrointestinal infection of SARS-CoV-2. Med Rxiv. 2020:2020.02.17.20023721.
76. Xia J, Tong J, Liu M, Shen Y, Guo D. Evaluation of corona virus in tears and conjunctival secretions of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Journal of medical virology. 2020.
77. Chen H, Guo J, Wang C, Luo F, Yu X, Zhang W, et al. Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records. The Lancet. 2020.
78. Wang W, Tang J, Wei F. Updated understanding of the outbreak of 2019 novel corona virus (2019-nCoV) in Wuhan, China. Journal of medical virology. 2020; 92:441-7.
79.Lessler J, Reich NG, Brookmeyer R, Perl TM, Nelson KE, Cummings DA. Incubation periods of acute respiratory viral infections: a systematic review. The Lancet Infectious diseases. 2009;9:291-300.
80. Cho SY, Kang JM, Ha YE, Park GE, Lee JY, Ko JH, et al. MERS-CoV outbreak following a single patient exposure in an emergency room in South Korea: an epidemiological outbreak study. Lancet (London, England). 2016; 388:994-1001.
81. Chan PK, Tang JW, Hui DS. SARS: clinical presentation, transmission, pathogenesis and treatment options. Clinical science (London, England : 1979). 2006; 110:193-204.
82. Yang Y, Lu Q, Liu M, Wang Y, Zhang A, Jalali N, et al. Epidemiological and clinical features of the 2019 novel corona virus outbreak in China. 2020:2020.02.10.20021675.
83. Mao L, Wang M, Chen S, He Q, Chang J, Hong C, et al. Neurological Manifestations of Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective case series study. 2020:2020.02.22.20026500.
84. Ai T, Yang Z, Hou H, Zhan C, Chen C, Lv W, et al. Correlation of Chest CT and RT-PCR Testing in Corona virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China: A Report of 1014 Cases. Radiology. 2020:200642.
85. Li Z, Wu M, Guo J, Yao J, Liao X, Song S, et al. Caution on Kidney Dysfunctions of 2019-nCoV Patients. 2020:2020.02.08.20021212.
86. Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, et al. Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China.JAMA. 2020.
87. Xu Z, Shi L, Wang Y, Zhang J, Huang L, Zhang C, et al. Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lancet Respir Med. 2020.
88. Xiao F, Tang M, Zheng X, Li C, He J, Hong Z, et al. Evidence for gastrointestinal infection of SARS-CoV-2. 2020:2020.02.17.20023721.
89. Wong KT, Antonio GE, Hui DS, Lee N, Yuen EH, Wu A, et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome: radiographic appearances and pattern of progression in 138 patients. Radiology. 2003; 228:401-6.
90. Shi H, Han X, Jiang N, Cao Y, Alwalid O, Gu J, et al. Radiological findings from 81 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. The Lancet Infectious diseases. 2020.
91. Wan S, Yi Q, Fan S, Lv J, Zhang X, Guo L, et al. Characteristics of lymphocyte subsets and cytokines in peripheral blood of 123 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel corona virus pneumonia (NCP). medRxiv. 2020:2020.02.10.20021832.
92. PRC NHCot. The Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Plan (5th trial version). 2020.
93. PRC NHCot. The Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Plan (6th trial version). 2020.
94. Feng Zhang OOA, Jonathan S. Gootenberg. A protocol for detection of COVID-19 using CRISPR diagnostics. 2020.
95. DiL, Fu Y, Sun Y, Li J, Liu L, Yao J, et al. RNA sequencing by direct tagmentation of RNA/DNA hybrids. 2020;117:2886-93
96. Holshue ML, DeBolt C, Lindquist S, Lofy KH, Wiesman J, Bruce H, et al. First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States. The New England journal of medicine. 2020.
97. Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, Yang X, Liu J, Xu M, et al. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Res. 2020.
98. Gao J, Tian Z, Yang X. Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies. Biosci Trends. 2020.
99. Boriskin YS, Leneva IA, Pecheur EI, Polyak SJ. Arbidol: a broad-spectrum antiviral compound that blocks viral fusion. Curr Med Chem. 2008; 15:997-1005.
100. Khamitov RA, Loginova S, Shchukina VN, Borisevich SV, Maksimov VA, Shuster AM. [Antiviral activity of arbidol and its derivatives against the pathogen of severe acute respiratory syndrome in the cell cultures]. Vopr Virusol. 2008; 53:9-13.
101. Lu H. Drug treatment options for the 2019-new coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Biosci Trends. 2020
102. Li W. [The curative effect observation of shuanghuanglian and penicillin on acute tonsillitis]. Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi. 2002; 16:475-6.
103. Lu HT, Yang JC, Yuan ZC, Sheng WH, Yan WH. [Effect of combined treatment of Shuanghuanglian and recombinant interferon alpha 2a on coxsackievirus B3 replication in vitro]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2000; 25:682-4.
104. Srikanth N., Singh A., Ota S., Sreedhar B., Galib, Dhiman K.S. Chemical characterization of an ayurvedic herbo-mineral preparation- mahalaxmivilas rasa. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2019; 10:262–268.
105. Bisht D., Sharma Y., Mehra B. A clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of pippali rasayana in certain respiratory disorders. AYU. 2009; 30:337–341.
106. Makhija I.K., Shreedhara C.S., Ram H.N.A. Mast cell stabilization potential of sitopaladi churna: An Ayurvedic formulation. Pharmacognosy Research. 2013; 5:306–308.
107. Rastogi S., Srivastav P.S. Ayurveda in critical care: Illustrating ayurvedic intervention in a case of hepatic encephalopathy. Ayu. 2011; 32:345–348.
108. Panigrahi H.K. Efficacy of Ayurvedic medicine in the treatment of uncomplicated chronic sinusitis.
109. Sharma R., Prajapati P.K. Nanotechnology in medicine: Leads from ayurveda. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2016;8:80–81.
110. Patil-Bhole T., Patil S., Wele A.A. Assessment of bioavailability of gold bhasma in human participants – a pilot study. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2018; 9:294–297.
111. Press Information Bureau, Government of India. Advisory for Corona virus. Available from: https://pib.gov.in/pressreleasepage.aspx?prid=1600895. Accessed on: 29 January 2020.
112. Mathie RT, Baitson ES, Frye J, Nayak C, Manchanda RK, Fisher P. Homeopathic treatment of patients with influenza-like illness during the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in India. Homeopathy (2013) 102, 187-192.
113. Chakraborty PS, Lamba CD, Nayak D, John MD, Sarkar DB et al. Effect of individualized homoeopathic treatment in influenza like illness: A multicenter, single blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Indian Journal of Research in Homoeopathy. 2013; 7(1).
114. André Saine, N.D. Case Management of the Influenza and Pneumonia Patient with Homeopathy During the COVID-19 Pandemic American Institute of Homeopathy.
115. Sadia Nikhat, Mohammad Fazil Overview of Covid-19; its prevention and management in the light of Unani medicine Science of the Total Environment 728 (2020)
116. Kumar V, Jung YS, Liang PH. Anti-SARS coronavirus agents: a patent review (2008 - present). Expert Opin Ther Pat. 2013; 23:1337-48.
117. Mair-Jenkins J, Saavedra-Campos M, Baillie JK, Cleary P, Khaw FM, Lim WS, et al.The effectiveness of convalescent plasma and hyperimmune immunoglobulin for the treatment of severe acute respiratory infections of viral etiology: a systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis. J Infect Dis. 2015; 211:80-90.
118. Soo YO, Cheng Y, Wong R, Hui DS, Lee CK, Tsang KK, et al. Retrospective comparison of convalescent plasma with continuing high-dose methylprednisolone treatment in SARS patients. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004; 10:676-8.
119.Hung IF, To KK, Lee CK, Lee KL, Chan K, Yan WW, et al. Convalescent plasma
treatment reduced mortality in patients with severe pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 52:447-56.
120.GR K. Immune Defenses. In: S B, editor. Medical Microbiology 4th edition. Galveston (TX): University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston; 1996.
121. Cheng Y, Wong R, Soo YO, Wong WS, Lee CK, Ng MH, et al. Use of convalescent plasma therapy in SARS patients in Hong Kong. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2005; 24:44-6.
122. Zarbock A, Kellum JA, Schmidt C, Van Aken H, Wempe C, Pavenstadt H, et al. Effect of Early vs Delayed Initiation of Renal Replacement Therapy on Mortality in Critically Ill Patients With Acute Kidney Injury: The ELAIN Randomized Clinical Trial. Jama. 2016; 315:2190-9.
123. Medscape: “Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Treatment & Management
124. Lim CC, Tan CS, Kaushik M, Tan HK. Initiating acute dialysis at earlier Acute Kidney Injury Network stage in critically ill patients without traditional indications does not improve outcome: a prospective cohort study. Nephrology (Carlton). 2015; 20:148-54.
124. Zhang L, Liu Y. Potential Interventions for Novel Coronavirus in China: A Systematic Review. Journal of medical virology. 2020.
125. Lau JT, Leung PC, Wong EL, Fong C, Cheng KF, Zhang SC, et al. The use of an herbal formula by hospital care workers during the severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic in Hong Kong to prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission, relieve influenza-related symptoms, and improve quality of life: a prospective cohort study. J Altern Complement Med. 2005; 11:49-55.
126. Morriss, Emma. "Government launches coronavirus vaccine taskforce as human clinical trials start".
127. Gartner A, Roberts L. "How close are we to a coronavirus vaccine? Latest news on UK trials".
128.Landmark partnership announced for development of COVID-19 vaccine". University of Oxford.
129. CEPI: Our vaccine and platform portfolio". Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation (CEPI).
130. CEPI collaborates with the Institut Pasteur in a consortium to develop COVID-19 vaccine". Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations. 19 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
131."Coronavirus: Commission offers financing to innovative vaccines company CureVac". European Commission. 16 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
132. Julie Steenhuysen, Peter Eisler, Allison Martell, Stephanie Nebehay. "Special Report: Countries, companies risk billions in race for coronavirus vaccine".
133.Kuznia R, Polglase K, Mezzofiore G. "In quest for vaccine, US makes 'big bet' on company with unproven technology".
134. Lee CE, Welker K, Perlmutter-Gumbiner E. "Health officials eyeing at least one of 14 potential coronavirus vaccines to fast-track".
135.Sanger DE, Kirkpatrick DD, Zimmer C, Thomas K, Wee S "With Pressure Growing, Global Race for a Vaccine Intensifies".
136.Takada N, Satake M (2 May 2020). "US and China unleash wallets in race for coronavirus vaccine".
137. Wang C, Li W, Dubravka D, et al. A human monoclonal antibody blocking SARS-CoV-2 infection. bioRxiv 2020
138. Tian X, Li C, Huang A, et al. Potent binding of 2019 novel coronavirus spike protein by a SARS coronavirus-specific human monoclonal antibody. Emerg Microbe Infect 2020; 9:382–5
139. Luo H, Tang QL, Shang YX, Liang SB, Yang M, Robinson N, et al. Can Chinese
Medicine Be Used for Prevention of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) A Review of Historical Classics, Research Evidence and Current Prevention Programs. Chin J Integr Med. 2020.
140. Hemila H. Vitamin C intake and susceptibility to pneumonia. Pediatr Infect Dis J.1997; 16:836-7.
Statistics
18 Views | 5 Downloads
How to Cite
1.
Budholiya P, Ali AW, Gunwan D, Sahil S, Tyagi C, Sharma H. COVID-19: A Global Pandemic of 21st Century. JDDT [Internet]. 15Jun.2020 [cited 2Jul.2020];10(3-s):311-2. Available from: http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/4088