A Review on Nigella sativa: A Marvel Herb
Nigella sativa (N. sativa) (Family Ranunculaceae) is a widely used medicinal plant throughout the world. It is very popular in various traditional systems of medicine like Unani and Tibb, Ayurveda and Siddha. Seeds and oil have a long history of folklore usage in various systems of medicines and food. The seeds of N. sativa have been widely used in the treatment of different diseases and ailments. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of healing medicine. It has been recommended for using on regular basis in Tibb-e-Nabwi (Prophetic Medicine). Nigella sativa and its constitutions including some isolated compounds are the potential sources of remedies of varieties of ailments such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic and antiprotozoal, antiviral, cytotoxic, anticancer, neuro-, gastro-, cardio-, hetapto- and nephroprotective activities. In addition, the N. sativa implies beneficiary effects on reproductive, pulmonary and immune systems along with diabetes mellitus (DM), fertility, breast cancer, dermatological complications, dehydration, dyspepsia, osmotic balance and so on. Among the other isolated chemical moieties, thymoquinone (TQ) is a good target for its potential antimicrobial, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive, antitumoral and other activities. N. sativa has got the place among the top ranked evidence based herbal medicines. This is also revealed that most of the therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone which is major bioactive component of the essential oil. The present review is an effort to provide a detailed survey of the literature on scientific researches of pharmacognostical characteristics, chemical composition and pharmacological activities of the seeds of this plant.
Keywords: Nigella sativa, Miracle herb, Ranunculaceae, Habat-ul-Sauda, Thymoquinone, Tibb-e-Nabwi, Black seeds, Anti-diabetic, Antioxidant
2. Sharma PC, Yelne MB, Dennis TJ. Database on medicinal plants used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: 2005. pp. 420–440.
3. Goreja WG. Black seed: nature's miracle remedy. New York, NY: Amazing Herbs Press; 2003.
4. Al-Bukhari MI. In: The collection of authentic sayings of prophet mohammad (peace be upon him), division 71 on medicine. 2nd ed. Al-Bukhari Sahi., editor. Ankara: Hilal Yayinlari; 1976.
5. Abel-Salam BK. Immunomodulatory effects of black seeds and garlic on alloxan-induced diabetes in albino rat. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2012; 40(6):336–340. [PubMed]
6. Al-Ali A, Alkhawajah AA, Randhawa MA, Shaikh NA. Oral and intraperitoneal LD50 of thymoquinone, an active principle of Nigella sativa, in mice and rats. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2008; 20(2):25–27. [PubMed]
7. saha rajsekher ,bhupendar kuldeep :pharmacognosy and pharmacology of nigella sativa. 2011;36-39
8. Sudhir P, Deshmukh VO and VeRMA HN: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences And Research, 2016; 7(8):3185.
9. Al-Jassir MS. Chemical composition and microflora of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seeds growing in Saudi Arabia. Food Chem 1992; 45: 239-242.
10. Atta-Ur-Rahman. Nigellidine-a new indazole alkaloid from the seed of Nigella sativa. Tetrahedron Lett 1995; 36(12): 1993-1994.
11. Nickavar B, Mojab F, Javidnia K, Amoli MA. Chemical composition of the fixed and volatile oils of Nigella sativa L. from Iran. Z Naturforsch C 2003; 58(9-10):629-631
12. M.S.M Hanafi ,M.E .Hateem : Studies on the antimicrobial activity of Nigella sativa seed (black cumin) 1991; 34(2-3):275-278.
13. Mohamed Shohayeb and Eman Halawani : Comparative Antimicrobial Activity of Some Active Constituents of N. sativa L ,2012; 20(2):182-189.
14. Zaoui, Y. Cherrah, N. Mahassini, K. Alaoui, H. Amarouch, M. Hassar, Acute and chronic toxicity of Nigella sativa fixed oil, Phytomedicine, Volume 9, Issue 1, 2002, Pages 69-74, ISSN 0944-7113, ttp://dx.doi.org/ 10.1078/0944-7113-00084.
15. Robert W. Lebling & Donna Pepperdine MH.Natural Remedies of Arabia. Stacey International. ISBN: 1-905299-02-8 2006 ; Page 30.
16. Alfredo Rossi, Lara Priolo, Alessandra Iorio, Enrica Vescarelli, Martina Gerardi, Daniele Campo, Donato Di Nunno, Simona Ceccarelli, Stefano Calvieri, Antonio Angeloni, Cinzia Marchese Evaluation of a Therapeutic Alternative for Telogen Effluvium: A Pilot Study ,Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications, 2013; 3:9-16 http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jcdsa.2013.
17. Shahinoor Rahaman Dulal, Hasib Sheikh, Mohammad Abu Taher , Mohammad Sayeed Ur Rahaman, Zakia Rahman and M.A. Malek , Formulation and finding out the efficacy of the herbal hair oil over simple coconut oil (Purified) – A formulation and clinical study in Bangladesh, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2014; 5(5):1801-1805.
18. Burits and F. Bucar, Antioxidant activity of Nigella sativa essential oil Published online: 28 JUL 2000, DOI: 10.1002/1099-1573(200008)14:5<323: AID-PTR621> 3.0. CO;2-QPhytotherapy Research 2000; 14(5):323–328.
19. H. Al. Bahtiti , Chemical Investigation and Preservative Effect of Jordanian Nigella sativa L. Seed Oil on Date Paste , International Journal of Research Studies in Biosciences (IJRSB)Volume 2015; 3(4):1-5
20. Alsawaf and H. S. Alnaemi Effect of Nigella sativa (seed and oil) on the bacteriological quality of soft white cheese Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2011; 25(1):21-27.
21. Shantanu Kale, Prashant Ghoge, Ammar Ansari, Ashwini Waje, Amol Sonawane. Formulation and in-vitro determination of Sun Protection Factor of Nigella sativa Seed Oil Sunscreen Cream. 2010; 2(4):194-2197.
22. Vahid Hadi ,Sorayya Kheirouri, Mohammad Alizadeh,Alireza Khabbazi and Hossein Hosseini: Effects of Nigella sativa oil extract on inflammatory cytokine response and oxidative stress status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial:2016; 6(1): 34–43.
23. Salama RH. Hypoglycemic effect of lipoic acid, carnitine and Nigella sativa in diabetic rat model. Int J Health Sci (Qassim) 2011; 5(2): 126-134.
24. Peng L, Liu A, Shen Y, Xu HZ, Yang SZ, Ying XZ, et al. Antitumor and anti-angiogenesis effects of thymoquinone on osteosarcoma through the NF-κB pathway. Oncol Rep 2013; 29(2): 571-578.
25. El-Kadi, A., Kandil, O.,. Effect of Nigella sativa (the black seed) on immunity. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Islamic Medicine, 4 Novembr, Kuwait, 1986; pp. 344–348
26. Ali, S.A., Meitei, K.V., Nigella sativa seed extract and its bioactive compound thymoquinone: the new melanogens causing hyperpigmentation in the wall lizard melanophores. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2011; 63(5):741–746.
27. Salama RH. Hypoglycemic effect of lipoic acid, carnitine and Nigella sativa in diabetic rat model. Int J Health Sci (Qassim) 2011; 5(2): 126-134.
28. Aqel M,Shaheen R. Effects of the volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds on the uterine smooth muscle of rat and guinea pig. J Ethnopharm 1996; 52(1): 23-26.
29. javed khalil, shahnaz akhter, shabir a. Bhatti and m. H. Bukhari: Biomedical; 2010; 26:61-65
30. Nemmar A, Al-Salam S, Zia S, Marzouqi F, Al-Dhaheri A, Subramaniyan D, et al. Contrasting actions of diesel exhaust particles on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems and the effects of thymoquinone. Br J Pharmacol 2011; 164(7): 1871-1882
31. Uz E, Bayrak O, Uz E, Kaya A, Bayrak R, Uz B, et al. Nigella sativa oil for prevention of chronic cyclosporine nephrotoxicity:an experimental model. Am J Nephrol 2008; 28(3): 517-522.
32. Yaman I, Balikci E. Protective effects of Nigella sativa against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol 2010; 62(2): 183-190.
33. Hadjzadeh MA, Keshavarzi Z, Yazdi TSA, Ghasem SM, Rajaei Z, Khajavi Rad A. Effect of alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa on cisplatin-induced toxicity in rat. Iran J Kidney Dis 2012; 6(2):99- 104
34. Boskabady MH, Mohsenpoor N, Takaloo L. Antiasthmatic effect of Nigella sativa in airways of asthmatic patients. Phytomedicine 2010; 17(10):707-713.
35. Zafeer MF, Waseem M, Chaudhary S, Parvez S. Cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity and its abrogation by thymoquinone. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2012; 26(5):199-205.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).