Study of In-vitro Antioxidant and Antibacterial activity of leaf extract of Azadirachta indica, and Ocimum sanctum in different organic solvents and Cow urine
Background: Neem (Azadirachta indica), Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) and Cow urine (Bos indicus) has been widely used as a therapeutic potential or additive agent in different ethnomedicinal practices as well as modern science also proved its therapeutic potential to treat various diseases and balance the body conditions.
Aims: Alone study on Neem, Tulsi and Cow urine (CU) has been widely performed but this study aims to evaluate the individual as well as synergistic antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Neem, and Tulsi’s leaves extract in different organic solvents and Cow urine.
Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity was carried out by using 2,2-Diphenyl1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and the antibacterial activity was tested by the agar disc diffusion method against gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella species) bacteria.
Results: The antioxidant and antibacterial activity is concentration-dependent. The neem extract in chloroform shows the highest ZOI against S. aureus (14±2). Similarly, the neem extract in cow urine (8±0.86) and tulsi extract in methanol (8±1.04) shows the highest ZOI against E. coli. Against K. species cow urine is most effective (9±0.29) followed by neem extract in chloroform and cow urine (8±0.77). In P. vulgaris almost all sample shows ZOI around 7 mm. In synergistic antibacterial study tulsi and neem extract in cow urine shows the highest ZOI against E. coli (12±1.75) and P. vulgaris (10±1.44). The tulsi and neem extract in hexane is not effective against S. aureus and E. coli but effective in P. vulgaris and K. species (ZOI 7 mm). Tulsi and neem extract in chloroform, methanol, and cow urine show similar ZOI (9 mm). In DPPH free radical scavenging activity the methanolic extract of tulsi shows the highest inhibition of free radicle (96.35±0.001), followed by methanolic extract of neem (84.85±0.042). The fresh cow urine inhibits (25.19±0.037) followed by neem extract in chloroform (24.53±0.003), neem extract in cow urine (21.8±0.012), tulsi extract in chloroform (20.86±0.047), tulsi extract in hexane (19.5±0.031), tulsi extract in cow urine (18.33±0.023) and the least inhibition by neem extract in hexane (6.74±0.042).
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