Physostigmine: A Plant Alkaloid Isolated from Physostigma venenosum: A Review on Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacological and Toxicological Activities

  • Gaber El-Saber Batiha National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Nishi 2-13, Inada-cho, 080-8555, Obihiro, Hokkaido, Japan
  • Luay M. Alkazmi Biology Department, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah 21955, Saudi Arabia
  • Eman H. Nadwa Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, Jouf University, Sakaka, Saudi Arabia
  • Eman K. Rashwan Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Assuit, Egypt
  • Amany Magdy Beshbishy National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Nishi 2-13, Inada-cho, 080-8555, Obihiro, Hokkaido, Japan
  • Hazem Shaheen Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour 22511, AlBeheira, Egypt
  • Lamiaa Wasef Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour 22511, AlBeheira, Egypt

Abstract

Medicinal plants have been documented as an important source for discovering new pharmaceutical molecules that have been used to treat serious diseases. Strikingly, previous reports stated that natural products and their derived compounds exhibit lesser side effects and improved efficacy than other synthetic counterparts. Physostigmine, a parasympathomimetic plant alkaloid isolated from the West African perennial shrub Physostigma venenosum, it shows a narrow therapeutic index and a short life span, despite its ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). It is a widely known reversible butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor and has been documented to treat various ailments such as Alzheimer’s disease. Pharmacologically, physostigmine was first reported as an antidote for atropine scopolamine and belladonna alkaloids toxicity. Recently, it has been documented as a therapy for treating several ailments including glaucoma, myasthenia gravis and the intoxication caused by tricyclic antidepressant overdoses, anti-histamines, antipsychotics, and benzodiazepines. Physostigmine has been reported to be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and showed short half-life, as, after the oral administration of 2 mg of physostigmine salicylate, the peak plasma concentration reached to 30 minutes. This review examines the biological activities, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity of physostigmine extracted from P. venenosum.


Keywords: Physostigma venenosum, Physostigmine, pharmacological activities, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor.

Keywords: Physostigma venenosum, Physostigmine, acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor

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Author Biographies

Gaber El-Saber Batiha, National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Nishi 2-13, Inada-cho, 080-8555, Obihiro, Hokkaido, Japan

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour 22511, AlBeheira, Egypt

Luay M. Alkazmi, Biology Department, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah 21955, Saudi Arabia

Biology Department, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah 21955, Saudi Arabia

Eman H. Nadwa, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, Jouf University, Sakaka, Saudi Arabia

Department of Medical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

Eman K. Rashwan, Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Assuit, Egypt

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Jouf University, Sakaka, Saudi Arabia

Amany Magdy Beshbishy, National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Nishi 2-13, Inada-cho, 080-8555, Obihiro, Hokkaido, Japan

National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Nishi 2-13, Inada-cho, 080-8555, Obihiro, Hokkaido, Japan

Hazem Shaheen, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour 22511, AlBeheira, Egypt

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour 22511, AlBeheira, Egypt

Lamiaa Wasef, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour 22511, AlBeheira, Egypt

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour 22511, AlBeheira, Egypt

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Batiha GE-S, Alkazmi LM, Nadwa EH, Rashwan EK, Beshbishy AM, Shaheen H, Wasef L. Physostigmine: A Plant Alkaloid Isolated from Physostigma venenosum: A Review on Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacological and Toxicological Activities. JDDT [Internet]. 15Feb.2020 [cited 27Feb.2020];10(1-s):187-90. Available from: http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3866