Maytenus emarginata: A Folklore Ethnomedicinal Plant of Rajasthan

  • Mukesh Kumar Khichar Plant Pathology and Mycology Lab, Dept. Of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan (India), 302004
  • Manoj Sharma Plant Pathology and Mycology Lab, Dept. Of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan (India), 302004
  • R.D. Agrawal Plant Pathology and Mycology Lab, Dept. Of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan (India), 302004


Tribal or folk medicines system is based on use of herbal medicines by tribal communities, which includes utilization of crude extract from local medicinal plants by medicine-men of community. The tribal communities dominated in various parts of Rajasthan harbors a vast diversity of vegetation. The surrounding plants form an integral part of culture of tribal people and the medicinal knowledge of plants is passed on from generation to generation through oral folklore and mythical stories. Ethno-botany is the study of plants and their practical uses through traditional knowledge by local inhabitants of a region. Maytenus emarginata Ding Hou is a Celesrtaceae family plant. It is locally known as ‘Kankero’ in hindi and Thorny staff tree in English. Various parts of this plant were used traditionally in folk culture for the treatment of various ailments. This review article includes therapeutic uses of crude extract of various parts of plant Maytenus emarginata and its phyto-chemical constituents. In this review article, we studied about anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, hepato-protective, anti-ulcerogenic activities of this plant.

Keywords: folk medicines, medicine-men, folklore, anti-cancer, hepato-protective.


Download data is not yet available.


1. Katewa SS, Chaudhary BL, Jain A, Folk herbal medicines from tribal area of Rajasthan, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2004; 92(1):41-6.
2. Kelly K, History of medicine, New York: Facts on File; 2009, p. 29-50.
3. Bottcher H, Miracle drugs, Zagreb: Zora. 1965:23-139.
4. Wiart C, Medicinal plants of the Asia-Pacific: drugs for the future?, World Scientific; 2006 Jan 11.
5. Glesinger L, Medicine through centuries, Zagreb: Zora, 1954:21-38.
6. Tucakov J, Healing with plants–phytotherapy, Beograd: Culture, 1971:180-90.
7. Bojadzievski P, The health services in Bitola through the centuries, Bitola: Society of science and art, 1992:15-27.
8. Gorunović MS, Lukić PB, Pharmakognosy, University of Belgrade–Faculty of Pharmacy, Belgrade, 2001.
9. Pelagic V, Pelagic folk teacher, Beograd: Freedom. 1970:500-2.
10. Katic R, La medicine en Serbie au moyen age, Beograd: Scientific work, 1958:7-36.
11. Tucakov J, Pharmacognosy, Beograd: Academic books, 1948:8-21.
12. Thorwald J, Power and knowledge of ancient physicians, Zagreb: August Cesarec, 1991:10-255.
13. Sagwan S, Rao DV, Sharma RA, Maytenus emarginata (Willd.): a promising drug for cancer therapy, Asian J Pharm Clin Res, 2011;4(3):9-12.
14. Spivey AC, Weston M, Woodhead S, Celastraceae sesquiterpenoids: biological activity and synthesis, Chemical Society Reviews, 2002;31(1):43-59.
15. Kothari MJ, Londhe AN, Ethnobotany of Human Healthcare of Chikhaldara, Amravati District in Maharashtra State, Ethnobotany and medicinal plants of Indian subcontinent, Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, India, 2000;1(2):110-3.
16. Pullaiah T, Encyclopaedia of world medicinal plants, Daya books; 2006.
17. Kapoor BB, Kishor K, Some Ethnomedicinal Tree Species Shekhawati Region of Rajasthan Used in Folk and Herbal Medicines, Unique Journal of Ayurvedic and Herbal Medicine, 2013;1(1):5-9.
18. Agrawal M, Nag TN, Seasonal variations in flavonoid content in Maytenus emarginata (Willd.) Ding Hou, J. Indian. Bnot. Soc, 2009;88(3):177-80.
19. Leung AY, Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used Infood Drugs and Cosmetics, John Wiley; 1980.
20. Kamble SY, Pradhan SG, Flora of Akola district, Maharashtra, Flora of India, 1988;3.
21. Harborne AJ, Phytochemical methods a guide to modern techniques of plant analysis, springer science & business media; 1998 Apr 30.
22. Mathur S, Goswami A, Identification, Isolation and Estimation of Maytenus emerginata phytosterols in vivo and in vitro, International J. of Sci. and Res, 2015;4(3):1807-1809.
23. Moteriya P, Padalia H, Rathod T, Menpara D, Chanda S, Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of Maytenus emarginata leaf and stem, Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2014;3(4):202-8.
24. Dhawale PG and Ghyare BP, Qualitative phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of Maytinus emarginata (Willd.) Ding Hou, Asian j. Of Pharmaceutical and Tech, 2016: 6(1):58-62.
25. Subramanian SS, Nagarajan S, Flavonoids of the seeds of Crotalaria retusa and Crotalaria striata, Cur Sci. 1969.
26. Naghski J, Fenske Jr CS, Couch JF, Use of paper chromatography for the quantitative estimation of quercetin in rutin, Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, American Pharmaceutical Association, 1951 Dec;40(12):613-6.
27. Mabry TJ, Markham KR, Thomas MB, The systematic identification of flavonoids, InLibrary of Congress Catalog Card, 1970; 72-95565, p. 41.
28. Mathur S, Goswami A, Production, Isolation and Estimation of Maytenus emarginata flavonoids in vivo and in vitro, International J. of Sci. and Res, 2014;3(5):339-42.
29. Sagwan S, Rao DV, Sharma RA, In-vitro antioxidant activity of Maytenus emarginata (Willd.) using DPPH assay, J. Chem. Res, 2011 Jul;4(7):2276-8.
30. Harshachandra, Ramya S., and Hatware K, phytochemical screening and pharmacological evaluation of anticancer activity of methanolic extract of Maytenus emarginata (willd) in rats, World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2015 :4(6): 1369-1379.
31. Sagwan S, Rao DV, Sharma RA, Phytochemical evaluation and quantification of primary metabolites of Maytenus emarginata (Willd.) Ding Hou, Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2010;2(6):46-50.
32. Riffel A, Medina LF, Stefani V, Santos RC, Bizani D, Brandelli A, In vitro antimicrobial activity of a new series of 1, 4-naphthoquinones, Brazilian journal of medical and biological research, 2002 Jul;35(7):811-8.
33. Amor IL, Boubaker J, Sgaier MB, Skandrani I, Bhouri W, Neffati A, Kilani S, Bouhlel I, Ghedira K, Chekir-Ghedira L, Phytochemistry and biological activities of Phlomis species, Journal of ethnopharmacology, 2009 Sep 7;125(2):183-202.
34. Vaghasiya Y, Dave R, Chanda S, Phytochemical analysis of some medicinal plants from western region of India, Res J Med Plant, 2011;5(5):567-76.
35. Elizabeth KM, Antimicrobial activity of Terminalia bellerica, Indian journal of clinical Biochemistry, 2005 Jul 1;20(2):150-3.
36. Bhat RS, Al-Daihan S, Phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activity of some green leafy vegetables, Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine, 2014 Mar 31;4(3):189-93.
37. Cushnie TT, Lamb AJ, Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids, International journal of antimicrobial agents, 2005 Nov 30;26(5):343-56.
38. Lampe JW, Spicing up a vegetarian diet: chemopreventive effects of phytochemicals, The American journal of clinical nutrition, 2003 Sep 1;78(3):579S-83S.
39. Rao DV. Sagwan S.,Sharma RA, In vivo and in vitro comparative study to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Maytenus emarginata (Willd.) Ding Hou, Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology Research, 2012:2(6):p845.
40. Nagavani V, Rao TR, Evaluation of antioxidant potential and qualitative analysis of major polyphenols by RP-HPLC in Nymphaea nouchali Burm flowers, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2010;2(4):98-104.
41. Cartea ME, Francisco M, Lema M, Soengas P, Velasco P, Resistance of cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) crops to Mamestra brassicae, Journal of economic entomology, 2010 Oct 5;103(5):1866-74.
42. Kakkar P, Mehrotra S, Viswanathan PN, Interrelation of active oxygen species, membrane damage and altered calcium functions, Molecular and cellular biochemistry, 1992 Apr 1;111(1-2):11-5.
43. Maxwell SR, Prospects for the use of antioxidant therapies, Drugs, 1995 Mar 1;49(3):345-61.
44. Basipogu D, Syed NB, A Less known folklore medicinal plant Maytenus emarginata of" Nallamala forest in Southern INDIA" is evaluated for its Free Radical Scavenging and a-glucosidase inhibitory activities, Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2015 Sep 1;4(3).
45. Oyaizu M, Studies on products of browning reaction, The Japanese Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics, 1986;44(6):307-15.
46. Braca A, Sortino C, Politi M, Morelli I, Mendez J, Antioxidant activity of flavonoids from Licania licaniaeflora, Journal of ethnopharmacology, 2002 Mar 31;79(3):379-81.
47. Rao MN, Nitric oxide scavenging by curcuminoids, Journal of pharmacy and Pharmacology, 1997 Jan 1;49(1):105-7.
48. Wenli Y, Yaping Z, Bo S, The radical scavenging activities of radix puerariae isoflavonoids: A chemiluminescence study, Food chemistry, 2004 Aug 31;86(4):525-9.
49. Kakkar P, Das B, Viswanathan PN, A modified spectrophotometric assay of superoxide dismutase, 1984
50. Matsui T, Yoshimoto C, Osajima K, Oki T, Osajima Y, In vitro survey of α-glucosidase inhibitory food components, Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 1996 Jan 1;60(12):2019-22.
51. Gupta V, Sharma M, Phytochemical analysis and evaluation of antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts of Maytenus emarginata, Omics: a journal of integrative biology, 2012 May 1;16(5):257-62.
52. Sagwan S, Rao DV, Sharma RA, In-vitro antioxidant activity of Maytenus emarginata (Willd.) using DPPH assay, J. Chem. Res, 2011 Jul;4(7):2276-8.
53. Hatano T, KAGAwA H, YASuHARA T, OKUDA T, Two new flavonoids and other constituents in licorice root: their relative astringency and radical scavenging effects, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 1988 Jun 25;36(6):2090-7.
54. Gupta M, Mazumdar UK, Sivahkumar T, Vamis ML, Karki S, Sambathkumar R, Manikandan L, Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Acalypha fruticosa, Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine, 2003;7(1):25-9.
55. González AG, Bazzocchi IL, Moujir L, Jiménez IA, Ethnobotanical uses of Celastraceae, Bioactive metabolites, Studies in Natural Products Chemistry, 2000 Dec 31;23:649-738.
56. Nagaveni P, Mohan GK, Gaikwad SB, Anticancer Activity of Maytenus emarginata Leaves and Stems: A Comparative Study, Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2015;7(2):101-6.
57. Williams GO, Omoh LE, Mitotic effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Cymbopogon citratus in Allium cepa root tips, Cytobios, 1995 Dec;87(350):161-8.
58. Maszewski J, Kaźmierczak A, Polit J, Cell cycle arrest in antheridial extract-treated root meristems of Allium cepa and Melandrium noctiflorum. Folia histochemica et cytobiologica/Polish Academy of Sciences, Polish Histochemical and Cytochemical Society, 1997 Dec;36(1):35-43.
59. Satyanarayana Murthy. G, Francis T. P, Rajendra Singh. C, Nagendra. H. G, and Chandrashekhar Naik, An assay for screening mitotic activity of herbal extracts, Current Science, Vol 100, No 9, May 2011, 1399-1404.
60. Abuhasanat, Zulfiker, MD., Masuma Siddiqua, In vitro anti bacterial, anti fungal and cytotoxic activity of Scoparia ducis L, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 3, Suppl 2, 2011, 198-203.
61. González AG, Bazzocchi IL, Moujir L, Jiménez IA, Ethnobotanical uses of Celastraceae, Bioactive metabolites, Studies in Natural Products Chemistry, 2000 Dec 31;23:649-738.
62. Gonzalez, J.G., G.D. Monache, F. D. Monache, and G.B, Marini‐Bettolo, J. Ethnopharmacol., 1982; 5, 73.
63. Itokawa H, Shirota O, Ikuta H, Morita H, Takeya K, Iitaka Y, Triterpenes from Maytenus ilicifolia, Phytochemistry, 1991 Jan 1;30(11):3713-6.
64. Nakanishi K, Gullo VP, Miura I, Govindachari TR, Viswanathan N, Structure of two triterpenes, Application of partially relaxed Fourier transform carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1973 Sep;95(19):6473-5.
65. Shirota O, Morita H, Takeya K, Itokawa H, Iitaka Y, Cytotoxic aromatic triterpenes from Maytenus ilicifolia and Maytenus chuchuhuasca, Journal of Natural Products, 1994 Dec;57(12):1675-81.
66. Zheng YL, Xu Y, Lin JF, Immunosuppresive effects of wilfortrine and euonine, Yao xue xue bao= Acta pharmaceutica Sinica, 1988 Dec;24(8):568-72.
67. Kuo YH, Chen CH, King ML, WU TS, Lee KH, Sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids from Maytenus emarginata: Emarginatine-C and-D and cytotoxic emarginatine-E and emarginatinine, Phytochemistry, 1994;35(3):803-7.
68. Kuo YH, King ML, Chen CF, Chen HY, Chen CH, Chen K, Lee KH, Two new macrolide sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids from Maytenus emarginata: emarginatine G and the cytotoxic emarginatine F, Journal of natural products, 1994 Feb;57(2):263-9.
69. Pathan M.M., Khan M.A., Sonukumar A.P., Gaikwad N.Z., Hepatoprotective activity of Maytenus emarginata against paracetamol induced liver injury in male wistar rats, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2014, Vol 6(8):
70. Desai S, Gavitre B, Gite M, Ahmad A, More Y, Telang P, Comparative evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of polyherbal formulations PHF-A and PHF-B in rats, Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2010;2(3):326-34.
71. Tanwar M, Sharma A, Swarnkar KP, Singhal M, Yadav K, Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. on Paracetamol induced toxicity, IJPSR, 2011; 2(1):110-121.
72. Patel PB, Patel TK, Shah P, Baxi SN, Sharma HO, Tripathi CB, Protective effect of ethanol extract of Gymnosporia montana (Roth) Bemth. in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, Indian journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 2010;72(3):392.
73. Gite VN, Pokharkar RD, Chopade VV, Takate SB, Hepato-protective activity of Enicostemma axillare in paracetamol induced hepato-toxicity in albino rats, International Journal of Pharmacy and Life Sciences (IJPLS), 2010;1(2):50-3.
74. Manivannan E, Rajaram S, Kothari R, Atul B, Jayakar B, Effect of Calotropis procera Linn against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats, Int J Res Pharm Biomed Sci, 2011;2:701-3.
75. Eminedoki DG, Uwakwe AA, Ibe GO, Protective effect of Garciniakola seed and honey mixture against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, Nigerian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2010;25(2):1-8.
76. Kangralkar VA, Patil SD, Bandivadekar RM, Nandagaon VS, Burli SC, Hepatoprotective activity of Feronia elephantum fruit extract against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in wistar rats, Int J Pharm Appl, 2010;1:46-9.
77. Akhtar MS, Akhtar AH, Khan MA, Antiulcerogenic effects of Ocimum basilicum extracts, volatile oils and flavonoid glycosides in albino rats, International journal of pharmacognosy, 1992 Jan 1;30(2):97-104.
78. Poonia L., Singh G.K., Evaluation of antiulcerogenic effect of alcoholic extract of Maytenus emarginata. Int. J. of Res, Ayurveda Pharma, 2013: 4(2).
79. Atta A.H. & Nasrmsoad, Antiulcerogenic effects of some plant extracts, Natural Product Radiance, 2005: 259-260.
135 Views | 138 Downloads
How to Cite
Khichar MK, Sharma M, Agrawal R. Maytenus emarginata: A Folklore Ethnomedicinal Plant of Rajasthan. JDDT [Internet]. 7Jan.2020 [cited 18Jan.2021];9(4-A):901-7. Available from: