Qualitative Phytochemical Screening, GCMS Studies and In-Vitro Anti-Oxidative Properties of Aqeuous Leaf Extract of Gnetum africanum

  • A.S. Ezekwe Department of Medical Biochemistry, Imo State University Owerri, Nigeria
  • P.C. Ugwuezumba Department of Medical Physiology, Imo State University Owerri, Nigeria
  • P. Nwankpa Department of Medical Biochemistry, Imo State University Owerri, Nigeria
  • J.N. Egwurugwu Department of Medical Physiology, Imo State University Owerri, Nigeria
  • C.N. Ekweogu Department of Medical Biochemistry, Imo State University Owerri, Nigeria
  • F.C. Emengaha Department of Medical Biochemistry, Imo State University Owerri, Nigeria
  • D. Akukwu Department of Human Anatomy and Neurobiology, Imo State University Owerri, Nigeria


This study aimed at carrying out a qualitative phytochemical screening, GC-MS studies and in-vitro antioxidant properties of aqueous leaf extract of Gnetum africanum. The qualitative phytochemical screening of the aqueous leaf extract of Gnetum africanum was done using standard procedures and revealed the presence of terpenoids, saponins, tannins, steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids, cardiac glucosides and phenols. The GC-MS screening revealed the presence of 14 compounds, 6 out of the 14 compounds were most prominent. The compound with the highest percentage peak area was caffeine with peak area of 96.9%, followed by n-Hexadacanotic acid with peak area of 60.9%, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol with peak area of 55.9%, tetradacanoic acid with peak area of 50.3%, cyclopentaneundecanoic acid with peak area of 47.8% and 2-cyclo-penten-1-2-hydroxy with peak area of 43.6% respectively. In-vitro determination of antioxidant property of leaf extract of Gnetum africanum was done photometrically using 2,2-dyhenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The DPPH scavenging ability of the leaf extract (43.2, 60.5, 68.8, and 75.7) was statistically significant at p<0.05 when compared with the standard drug ascorbic acid (81.1, 82.6, 85.1, and 90.4) % at 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/l. In conclusion, the leaf extract of Gnetum africanum is loaded with a host of important phytochemicals and has antioxidant properties which increase in potency with increase dose.

Keywords: Phytochemical Screening, GCMS Studies, Anti-Oxidant, Gnetum africanum


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Ezekwe A, Ugwuezumba P, Nwankpa P, Egwurugwu J, Ekweogu C, Emengaha F, Akukwu D. Qualitative Phytochemical Screening, GCMS Studies and In-Vitro Anti-Oxidative Properties of Aqeuous Leaf Extract of Gnetum africanum. JDDT [Internet]. 15Jan.2020 [cited 19Sep.2020];10(1):11-7. Available from: http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3813