Attitude and Practice of Community Pharmacists towards Pharmaceutical Care in Nigeria

  • Kingsley Chiedu Amibor Federal Medical Centre, Asaba
  • Collins Okonta El-Rapha Pharmacy Ltd, Okpanam, Delta State

Abstract

Background: Since the introduction of pharmaceutical care in the 1990’s, a lot of progress has been made, but misconceptions and barriers to its full implementation still exist. Around the world, community pharmacists are moving from supplying and dispensing medications to gradual introduction of pharmaceutical care into their practice.


Objectives: This study evaluated the attitude and practice of pharmaceutical care among community pharmacists in Delta State, Nigeria.


Methods: These were achieved through the use of a 30 item questionnaire pretested and administered to 50 community pharmacists that gathered for their quarterly meeting in Asaba, Delta State.  Data were analyzed through chi square statistics using SPSS 23.  A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.


Results: Out of 50 questionnaires distributed, 32 were returned, giving a response rate of 64%. Majority of the respondents (28.1%) were aged 50-59 years, more than half (62.5%) were males. The mean age was 40.5 years ± 13.7 years. Majority of the respondents (71.9%) were married, more than half (56.3%) had Bachelor of Pharmacy as sole degree. Half (50.0%) were residing in Warri while more than a third (40.6%) had been in practice for 1-5 years. Attitude was positive (51.2%), practice was poor (39.0%).  Reasons for not practicing pharmaceutical care ranged from lack of personnel (21.9%), lack of collaboration with other healthcare providers; lack of space and non-acceptance by physicians and nurses were 18.8% each, lack of pharmaceutical care skills (9.4%) and pharmaceutical care is time consuming (6.5%). Analysis of educational status versus number of respondents involved in identification of errors was significant at c2 = 21.013, P = 0.002 with Bachelor of Pharmacy respondents (56.3%) identifying most errors.


Conclusion: Attitude of community pharmacists to pharmaceutical care from this study was positive while practice was poor. Interventions such as update lectures to improve awareness of Pharmaceutical care and further attitudinal change are recommended.


Keywords:  pharmaceutical care, community pharmacists, attitude and practice

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

1. Hepler DD, Strand LM, Opportunities and Responsibilities in Pharmaceutical Care, Am.J. Pharm.Educ.1989; 53, 7S-15S
2. University of Oklahoma College of Pharmacy. Definition of Pharmaceutical Care. Available at https://pharmacy-old.ouhsc.edu Accessed 17th November, 2017
3. Foppe van Mill JW, Fernandez Llimos F. What is ‘pharmaceutical care’ in 2013? Pharm Pract (Granada) 2013 Jan-March; 11(1):1-2
4. Foppe van Mil JW, Schulz M. A review of pharmaceutical care in community pharmacy in Europe. Harvard Health Policy Review 2006; 7 (1): 155–168.
5. FIP Statement of Pharmaceutical Standards Pharmaceutical care. Council meetingin Hague, Netherlands on 4 September, 1998.
6. Udeogaranya PO, Ukwe CV, Ekwunife OI. Assessment of attitudes of University of Nigeria pharmacy students towards pharmaceutical care. 2009. www.pharmacytimes.com/.org (Accessed 5th June, 2018)
7. Ogbonna BO, Ejim CE, Ikebudu CC, Uzodinma SU, Orji CE. Pharmaceutical Care and Community Pharmacy Practice In Nigeria; Grappling With the Frontier. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research ejpmr, 2015; 2(7): 33-42
8. WHO. The Role of the Pharmacist in the Healthcare System https://apps.who.int Accessed 13th October, 2019
9. May RJ. Barriers to pharmaceutical care in the acute care setting. Am J Hosp Pharm., 1993; 50: 1608-11.
10. Swift BG. Barriers to pharmaceutical care in the home care setting. Am J Hosp Pharm., 1993; 50: 1611-4.
11. Louie N, Robertson N. Barriers to pharmaceutical care in the managed care setting. Am J Hosp Pharm., 1993; 50: 1614-7.
12. Desselle S, Rappaport HM. The identification of pharmaceutical care standards in the community pharmacy setting. J Pharm Care., 1997; 1(3): 1-11
13. Amibor KC, Onyegasi CS, Ezeudu PI. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Pharmaceutical Care among pharmacists in a state in Nigeria. African Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development. 2018 ; 10 (1) 22-31
14. Dunlop JA, Shaw JP. Community pharmacists’ perspectives on pharmaceutical care implementation in New Zealand. Pharmacy World and Science 2002;24(6), 224-230
15. Fang Y, Shimin Y, Bianling F, Yufei N, Kanghuai Z. Pharmacists’ perception of pharmaceutical care in community pharmacy: a questionnaire survey in Northwest China. Health and Social Care in the Community (2011) 19(2), 189–197
16. Oparah CA, Eferakeya AE. Attitude of Nigerian pharmacists towards pharmaceutical care. Pharm World Sci., 2005; 27(3): 208-14.
17. Oparah CA, Enato EFO, Akoria OA. Assessment of patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical services in a Nigerian teaching hospital. Int J Pharm Pract., 2004; 12: 255-260.
18. Ma’aji HU, Ondeku S.I. Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Community Pharmacists towards Pharmaceutical Care in Kaduna State, Nigeria. IJPTP, 2014; 5(2): 972-976.
19. Oparah AC; Essentials of Pharmaceutical Care. A Cybex publication, 2010; 4-38.
20. Suleiman IA, Onaneye O. Pharmaceutical Care Implementation: A Survey of Attitude, Perception and Practice of Pharmacists in Ogun State, South-Western Nigeria, International Journal of Health Research, June 2011; 4(2): 91-97
21. Pauley TR, Magee MJ, and Curry JD. Pharmacist Coordinated Asthma Management Programme. Am Pharmacother., 1995; 29: 5-9.
22. Yancey V, Yakimo R, Perry A, McPherson TB. Perceptions of pharmaceutical care among pharmacists offering compounding services. J. Am Pharm Assoc 2003; 48(4):505-14
23. Desselle S. Pharmacists' Perceptions of a Set of Pharmaceutical Care Practice Standards Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association 1997; 37 (5) 529-534
24. El Hajj MS, AL-Saeed HS, Khaja M. Qatar pharmacists’ understanding, attitudes, practice and perceived barriers related to providing pharmaceutical care. Int J Clin Pharm 2016; 38: 330
25. Westerlund LT, Bjo ¨rk HT. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Sweden. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2006; 40 (6): 1162– 1169
26. Eickhoff C, Schulz M. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Germany. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2006; 40 (4): 729–735.
27. Jones EJ, Mackinnon NJ, Tsuyuki RT. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Canada. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2005; 39 (9): 1527–1533.
28. Surachat N, Shu CL. Thai pharmacists’ understanding, attitudes, and perceived barriers related to providing pharmaceutical care. American Journal of Health System Pharmacy 2006; 63: 2144–2150.
29. De Castro MS, Correr CJ. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Brazil. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2007; 41 (9): 1486–1493.
30. Pauley TR, Magee MJ, and Curry JD. Pharmacist Coordinated Asthma Management Programme. Am Pharmacother., 1995; 29: 5-9.
31. WHO Consultative Group on the Role of the Pharmacist in the Health Care System. (1988: New Delhi, India). Available at https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/59169 Accessed 11th June, 2019
32. Martı ´n-Calero MJ, Machuca M, Murillo MD, Cansino J, Gastelurrutia MA, Faus MJ. Structural process and implementation programmes of pharmaceutical care in different countries. Current Pharmaceutical Design 2004; 10 (31): 3969–3985.
33. Oparah AC, Adje DU, Enato EFO Outcomes of pharmaceutical care intervention to hypertensive patients in a Nigerian community pharmacy International Journal of Pharmacy Practice 2010. 14 (2) 05
34. National Population Commission. Delta State. Available at www.population.gov.ng Accessed 15th September, 2017
35. Amibor KC, Obaseki OA, Onyegasi OS, Onochie TI, Apeh DE, Ujomu AC. Knowledge, attitude and preparedness of pharmacists towards epidemic outbreaks. West African Journal of Pharmacy. 2015 26 (2) 17
36. Odili VU, Amibor KC, Obaseki AO. Internet and social media use among pharmacists in a state in Nigeria Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 2019 9 (6) 95-101
37. About Asaba. Available at https://asaba.com Accessed 17th August, 2018
38. Warri. https://en.m/wikipedia.org .wiki Accessed 27th October, 2019.
39. Inamdar SZ, ApsyP, Rosy J, Kulkarni RV, Gazala K, Kavaya H. et al. Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Community Pharmacist towards the provision of Pharmaceutical Care: A Community based Study. Indian Journal of Pharmacy Practice 2018. 11 (3)158-163
Statistics
101 Views | 80 Downloads
How to Cite
1.
Amibor KC, Okonta C. Attitude and Practice of Community Pharmacists towards Pharmaceutical Care in Nigeria. JDDT [Internet]. 15Dec.2019 [cited 4Jul.2020];9(6-s):164-71. Available from: http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/view/3786