In Vivo and In Vitro Antidiabetic Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Dactylorhiza Hatagirea Roots: An Evaluation of Possible Phytoconstituents
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorder which causes microvascular and macrovascular complications. Several synthetic drugs used to treat diabetes have adverse effects on prolonged usage. This has given the impetus to the search for alternative medicines with no or less side effects. The plants of Orchidaceae family have displayed antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer and antidiabetic activity. However, their antidiabetic properties are yet to be explored. This study sought to evaluate the antidiabetic potentials of hydroalcoholic extract of root of Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. hatagirea) in diabetic rats. Qualitative analysis of various phytochemical constituents and quantitative analysis of total flavonoids were determined by the well-known test protocol available in the literature and quercetin was detected in hydroalcoholic extract of root of D. hatagirea under study by using RP-HPLC analysis. Percentage inhibition of α-amylase activity by D. hatagirea root extract was estimated with acarbose as the positive control, D. hatagirea extract show dose dependent activity. IC50 value of acarbose and extract was found to 35.33 and 224.45 µg/ml respectively. Diabetes was induced in wistar albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg; i.p.). The of hydroalcoholic extract of D. hatagirea at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was administrated at a single dose per day to diabetes-induced rats for a period of 15 day. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of D. hatagirea root on blood glucose, total cholesterol (TR), triglycerides (TG), total protein and body weight were measured in the diabetic rats. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of D. hatagirea root elicited significant reduction in blood glucose (p<0.001), (p<0.01), lipid parameters (TC, TG, total protein) (p<0.01) and significantly increased body weight at the dose of 200 mg/kg when compared with the diabetic-induced control. For future studies, phytochemcials responsible for various activities can be isolated and modified for pharmacological purpose.This study, therefore, justifies the use of the plant in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
Keywords: Dactylorhiza hatagirea, Phytochemical profile, Quercetin,
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