Effects of Nicotine on Sperm Health and Semen Quality: A Review based on Animal Studies
Various studies have revealed the toxic effects of nicotine, an alkaloid compound of tobacco, on semen quality and sperm physiology; however, these studies collectively are still unsummarized. Here, I systematically discuss and summarize the nicotine exposure, pharmacology and its insults on semen quality and sperm physiology. I searched the Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus databases for only English language articles or abstracts from September 1969 to March 2019 (inclusive) using the key words “Nicotine” and “tobacco” versus “sperm”. In conclusion, the mainstream published work demonstrates the negative effects of nicotine on semen quality: first, by increasing sperm count, and by enhancing sperm motility and reducing sperm DNA damage, though there are a few in clinical studies that have deliberated some adverse effects. The detrimental effects of Nicotine on semen quality may be due to decreased functionality of reproductive organs, increased levels of oxidative damage to sperm, reduced amount of energy produced by spermatozoa. However, additional research, mainly clinical, is still needed to confirm these
Keywords: Nicotine; sperm; testicular damage; semen quality
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