Anti-Anxiety and Antidepressant Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Dalbergia Sissoo for Anxiety and Depression in Ovariectomized Rats
There are studies showing the effects of long-term ovarian hormones withdrawal and post-menopause on animal behavior. Ovarian hormones play a critical role is modulating anxiety and depressive symptoms in female. Thus, this current study evaluated the anxiety and depression of long-term ovariectomy (OVX) in adult rats subjected to the light and dark chamber and forced swimming tests. In this study, we tested the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Dalbergia sissoo on female anxiety and depression in long-term postsurgical bilateral ovariectomized female rats. 6-month old female Wistar rats were used and distributed in 5 groups; diestrus rats, ovariectomized (OVX) groups with 60 days, OVX treated with standard β Estradiol (0.1mg/kg/s.c), OVX treated hydroalcoholic extract of Dalbergia sissoo (200 & 400 mg/kg). All treatments were given for further 28 days after post-surgical period (60 days) in ovariectomized female rats. They were evaluated on the 28th day in the light and dark chamber and forced swim test apparatus. The treatment of the hydroalcoholic extract of Dalbergia sissoo (200 and 400 mg/kg) in the OVX rats shows significant increase in the time spent in the light chamber and the immobility time was significantly decrease in the extracted treated groups as compared to the OVX group. Anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors were observed in rats which were influenced by post-menopause or ovarian hormone withdrawal. Results suggested that 28 days of treatment with hydroalcoholic extract of Dalbergia sissoo is able to lower the anxiety levels and depression in estrogen deficient females.
Keywords: Dalbergia sissoo, Post menopause, Anxiety, Depression, Light dark box, Forced swim test.
2. Pisani G, Facioni L, Fiorani F, Pisani G, Psychosexual problems in menopause, The Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology, 1998; 50: 77-81.
3. Zhao H, Tian Z, Feng Y, Chen B, Circulating estradiol and hypothalamic corticotrophin releasing hormone enhances along with time after ovariectomy in rats: effects of electroacupuncture, Neuropeptides, 2005; 39: 433-438.
4. Kessler RC, McGonagle KA, Swartz M, Blazer D, Nelson CB, Sex and depression in the National Comorbidity Survey. I: lifetime prevalence, chronicity and recurrence, Journal of Affective Disorders, 1993; 29(2-3): 85-96.
5. Pearlstein T, Rosen K, Stone AB, Mood disorders and menopause, Endocrinology & Metabolism Clinics of North America, 1997; 26: 279-294.
6. Birkhauser M, Depression, menopause and estrogens: is there a correlation? Maturitas, 2002; 15(Suppl 1): S3-S8.
7. Steiner M, Dunn E, Born L, Hormones and mood: from menarche to menopause and beyond, Journal of Affective Disorders, 2003; 74: 67-83.
8. Bhavnani BR, Strickler RC, Menopausal hormone therapy, Journal of Obstetrics Gynaecology Canada, 2005; 27: 137-162.
9. Taylor M, Psychological consequences of surgical menopause, Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 2001; 6: 317–324.
10. Okada M, Hayashi N, Kometani M, Nakao K, Inukai T, Influences of ovariectomy and continuous replacement of 17β-estradiol on the tail skin temperature and behavior in the forced swimming test in rats, Japanese Journal of Pharmacology, 1997; 73: 93–96.
11. Bekku N, Yoshimura H, Animal model of menopausal depressive-like state in female mice: prolongation of immobility time in the forced swimming test following ovariectomy, Psychopharmacology, 2005; 183: 300-307.
12. Marcondes FK, Miguel KJ, Melo LL, Spadari-Bratfisch RC, Estrous cycle influences the response of female rats in the elevated plus-maze test, Physiology & Behavior, 2001; 74: 435–440.
13. Frye CA, Petralia SM, Rhodes ME, Estrous cycle and sex differences in performance on anxiety tasks coincide with increases in hippocampal progesterone and 3α,5α- THP, Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 2000; 67: 587–96.
14. Frye CA, Walf AA, Changes in progesterone metabolites in the hippocampus can modulate open field and forced swim test behavior of proestrous rats, Hormones and Behavior, 2002; 41: 306–315.
15. Estrada-Camarena E, Fernandez-Guasti A, Lopez-Rubalcava C, Antidepressant-like effect of different estrogenic compounds in the forced swimming test, Neuropsychopharmacology, 2003; 28: 830–838.
16. Walf AA, Rhodes ME, Frye CA, Anti-depressant effects of ERβ selective estrogen receptor modulators in the forced swim test, Pharmacology Biochemistry Behavior, 2004; 78: 523–529.
17. Chaves G. de, Moretti M, Castro AA et al., Effects of long- term ovariectomy on anxiety and behavioral despair in rats, Physiology & Behavior, 2009; 97: 420–425.
18. S.M. Belcher, Zsarnovszky A, Estrogenic actions in the brain: estrogen, phytoestrogens, and rapid intracellular signaling mechanisms, Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 2001; 299: 408–414.
19. Lund TD, Rovis T, Chung WC, Handa RJ, Novel actions of estrogen receptor beta on anxiety-related behaviors, Endocrinology, 2005; 146: 797–807.
20. Bijauliya RK, Jain SK, Alok S, Dixit VK, Singh D, Singh M, Dalbergia sissoo Linn. An overview morphology, phytochemistry and pharmacology, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Research, 2017; 8(4): 1522-1533.
21. Dixit P, Chillara R, Khedgikar V. Constituents of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. Leaves with osteogenic activity, Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 2012; 22: 890-897.
22. Hajare SW, Chandra S, Sharma J, Tandan SK, Lal J. Anti-inflammatory activity of Dalbergia sissoo leaves, Fitoterapia, 2001; 72: 131-139.
23. Waynforth HB, Flecknell PA, Experimental and Surgical Technique in the Rat, Smithkleine Beecham Pharmaceuticals, UK; Comparative Biology Centre, Medical School, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, Elsevier Academic Press. P. 276-278.
24. Young WC, Boling JL, Blandau R, The vaginal smear picture, sexual receptivity and time of ovuation in the albino rat, The Anatomical Record, 1941; 80: 37-45.
25. Porsolt RD, Le Pichon M, Jalfre M, Depression: a new animal model sensitive to antidepressant treatments, Nature, 1977; 266(5604): 730-732.
26. Crawley J and Goodwin FK, Preliminary report of a simple animal behavior model for the anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines, Pharmacology Biochemistry Behavior, 1980; 13(2): 167-170.
27. Fernandez-Guasti A, Picazo O, Changes in burying behavior during the estrous cycle: effect of estrogen and progesterone, Psychoneuroendocrinology, 1992; 17: 681–689.
28. Picazo O, Fernandez-Guasti A, Changes in experimental anxiety during pregnancy and lactation, Physiology & Behavior, 1993; 54: 295–299.
29. Laconi MR, Casteller G, Gargiulo PA, Bregonzio C, Cabrera RJ, The anxiolytic effect of allopregnanolone is associated with gonadal hormonal status in female rats, European Journal of Pharmacology, 2001; 417: 111–116.
30. Reddy DS, Pharmacology of endogenous neuroactive steroids, Critical Reviews Neurobiology, 2003; 15: 197–234.
31. Gomez C, Saldivar-Gonzalez A, Delgado G, Rodriguez R, Rapid anxiolytic activity of progesterone and pregnanolone in male rats, Pharmacology Biochemistry Behavior, 2002; 72: 543–550.
32. Bachmann G, Physiologic aspects of natural and surgical menopause, Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 2001; 46(3 Suppl): 307–315.
33. Henderson VW, Sherwin BB, Surgical versus natural menopause: cognitive issues, Menopause, 2007; 14(3 Pt 2): 572–579.
34. Daniel JM, Hulst JL, Berbling JL, Estradiol replacement enhances working memory in middle-aged rats when initiated immediately after ovariectomy but not after a long-term period of ovarian hormone deprivation, Endocrinology, 2006; 147(1): 607–614.
35. Bekku N, Yoshimura H, Araki H, Factors producing a menopausal depressive-like state in mice following ovariectomy, Psychopharmacology (Berl), 2006; 187(2): 170–180.
36. Payne JL, The role of estrogen in mood disorders in women, International Review Psychiatry, 2003; 15: 280–290.
37. Bernardi M, Vergoni AV, Sandrini M, Tagliavini S, Bertolini A, Influence of ovariectomy, estradiol and progesterone on the behavior of mice in an experimental model of depression, Physiology and Behavior, 1989; 45: 1067–1068.
38. Galea L, Wide J, Barr A, Estradiol alleviates depressive-like symptoms in a novel animal model of post-partum depression, Behavioral Brain Research, 2001; 122: 1–9.
39. Fink G, Sumner BE, McQueen JK, Wilson H, Rosie R, Sex steroid control of mood, mental state and memory, Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology, 1998; 25: 764–775.
40. Rachman IM, Unnerstall JR, Pfaff DW, Cohen RS, Estrogen alters behavior and forebrain c-fos expression in ovariectomized rats subjected to the forced swim test, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 1998; 95: 13941–13946.
41. Landry M, Di Paolo T, Effect of chronic estradiol, tamoxifen or raloxifene treatment on serotonin 5-HT1A receptor, Molecular Brain Research, 2003; 112: 82–89.
42. Hascoet M and Bourin MA, A new approach to the light/dark test procedure in mice, Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 1998; 60(3): 645-53.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).