Study of the acute oral toxicity of methanol extract of aerial parts from Marsilea quadrifolia Linn

  • Mohanraj Subramanian Research scholar, The Tamil Nadu Dr M.G.R Medical University, Guindy, Chennai – 600032, Tamil Nadu, India
  • Sangameswaran Balakrishnan Principal, SSM College of Pharmacy, Erode 638312, Tamilnadu, India

Abstract

Marsilea quadrifolia Linn is a pteridophyte belonging to Family Marsileaceae commonly known as European water clover. M. quadrifolia is used to treat snake bite, cough, bronchitis, diabetes, psychiatric diseases, eye diseases, diarrhoea and skin diseases. Objective of the study is to identify a dose causing major adverse effects and an estimation of the minimum dose causing lethality, according to regulatory guidelines (OECD 425). Female Swiss Albino mice weighing 20-25 gm, aged 56 to 70 days were chosen for the study. Mice were divided into two groups (n=10/group). Group I served as control and treated with Saline. The Group II received methanol extract of M. quadrifolia orally ranging from 175 to 2000 mg/kg body weight by using oral feeding needle sleeved on to disposable syringe. They were kept in individual polypropylene cages provided with clean bedding of rice husk.. There was no mortality or behavioural changes observed in treated animals. All the animals belonging to the treated group survived throughout the 14 days observation period after dosing. The data revealed that LD50 of the extract was greater than 2000 mg/kg b.w. There was no significant variation found in body weight and organ to body mass index. In comparison with control group, there was significant increase in levels of ALT, AST,Bilirubin, total proteins, globulin levels, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, platelet count, MCV, MCH, WBC count and lymphocytes whereas ALP and MCHC levels were reduced significantly. No significant changes were observed in HB, total RBC, total bilirubin, albumin. The methanol extract of aerial parts from Marsilea quadrifolia Linn had nontoxic effect on the biochemical and haematological parameters studied up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg. The lethal dose is therefore over 2000 mg/kg.


Keywords: Marsilea quadrifolia, Methanol, Albino mice, Snake bite

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Mohanraj Subramanian, Research scholar, The Tamil Nadu Dr M.G.R Medical University, Guindy, Chennai – 600032, Tamil Nadu, India

Associate professor, Department of Pharmacology, SSM College of Pharmacy, Erode 638312, Tamilnadu, India

Sangameswaran Balakrishnan, Principal, SSM College of Pharmacy, Erode 638312, Tamilnadu, India

Principal, SSM College of Pharmacy, Erode 638312, Tamilnadu, India

References

1. Arya AA, Mahmood SH, Batoul AM, Mustafa, Screening for hypoglycaemic activity on the leaf extracts of nine medicinal plants: in-vivo evaluation, E-J Chem, 2012; 9(3):1196-1205.
2. Said K, Khalil S, Fulder H, Azaizeh, Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal herbs of the Middle East region, J Ethnopharmacol, 2002; 83:251-256.
3. Subramanian M, Balakrishnan S, A Review on Marsilea Quadrifolia L. – A Medicinally Important Plant, J Compr Phar, 2016; 3(2):38-44.
4. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines for acute toxicity of chemicalas. No. 425
5. Vaghasiya YK, Shukla VJ, Chanda SV, Acute oral toxicity study of Pluchea arguta boiss extract in mice, J Pharmacol Toxico, 2011; 6:113-123.
6. Adaramoye OA, Osaimoje DO, Akinsanya AM, Nneji CM, Fafunso MA, Ademowo OG, Changes in antioxidant status and biochemical indices after acute administration of artemether, artemether-lumefantrine and halofantrine in rats, Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol, 2008; 102(4):412-418.
7. Walum, E, Nilsson M, Clemedson C, Ekwall B, The MEIC program and its implications for the prediction of acute human systemic toxicity, In Alternative Methods in Toxicology and the Life Sciences; Goldberg, A.M., van Zutphen, L.F.M., Eds.; Mary Ann Liebert: New York, NY,BUSA, 1995; 11:275-282.
8. Eaton DL, Klaassen CD, Principles of toxicology.In Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology, The basic science of poisons, 5th ed; Klaassen, C.D.,; McGraw-Hill: New York,NY,USA,1996:13.
9. Carol SA, Acute,Subchronic and Chronic Toxicology, In CRC Handbook of Toxicology. Michael JD, Mannfred AH, Eds, CRC Press Inc: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 1995:51-104.
10. Stevan KR, Mylecrdfaine L, Issues in chronic Toxicology, In Principles and methods of toxicology,3rd ed.Hayes A.W.,Ed; Ravan Press: New York, NY,USA, 1994;673.
11. Iversen PO, Nicolaysen G, Water for life, J.Norw.Med.Assoc.2003; 123:3402-3405.
12. Subramanian M, Balakrishnan S, Chnnaiyan SK, Sekar V, Chandu AN, Hepatoprotective effect of leaves of Morinda tinctoria Roxb. Against paracetamol induced liver damage in rats, Drug invention today, 2013 ;5(3):223-228.
13. Withawaskul P, Panthong A, Kanjanapothi D, Taesothikul T, Lertprasertsuke N, Acute and subacute toxicities of the saponin mixture isolated from Schefflera leucantha Viguier.J.Ethnopharmacol,2003;89(1):115-121.
14. Reddy PB, Kanojia J, Clinico Pathological effects of pesticides exposure on farm workers.DAV, Int J Sci,2012;1(2):119-121.
15. Khan AL, Ahmad L, Khan MZ, Hemato-biochemical changes induced by pyrethroid insecticides in avian, fish and mammalian species,Int J Agric Biol,2012; 14:834-842.
16. Gowda S, Desai PB, Kulkarni SS, Hull VV, Math AAK, Vernekar SN, Markers of renal function tests, N Am J Sci; 2(4): 170-173.
17. Mukinda JT, Syce JA, Acute and chronic toxicity of the aqueous extract of Artemisia afra in rodents, J.Ethnopharmacol,2007; 112(7):138-144.
18. Srivastava KK, Ratankumar, Stress, Oxidative injury and Disease, Indian J Clin Biochem, 2015;30(1):3-10.
19. Middleton E, Effect of plant flavonoids on immune and inflammatory cell function, Adv Exp Med Biol, 1998; 439:175-82.
Statistics
14 Views | 59 Downloads
How to Cite
Subramanian, M., & Balakrishnan, S. (2019). Study of the acute oral toxicity of methanol extract of aerial parts from Marsilea quadrifolia Linn. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 9(3-s), 104-109. https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v9i3-s.2973