Study of the acute oral toxicity of methanol extract of aerial parts from Marsilea quadrifolia Linn
Marsilea quadrifolia Linn is a pteridophyte belonging to Family Marsileaceae commonly known as European water clover. M. quadrifolia is used to treat snake bite, cough, bronchitis, diabetes, psychiatric diseases, eye diseases, diarrhoea and skin diseases. Objective of the study is to identify a dose causing major adverse effects and an estimation of the minimum dose causing lethality, according to regulatory guidelines (OECD 425). Female Swiss Albino mice weighing 20-25 gm, aged 56 to 70 days were chosen for the study. Mice were divided into two groups (n=10/group). Group I served as control and treated with Saline. The Group II received methanol extract of M. quadrifolia orally ranging from 175 to 2000 mg/kg body weight by using oral feeding needle sleeved on to disposable syringe. They were kept in individual polypropylene cages provided with clean bedding of rice husk.. There was no mortality or behavioural changes observed in treated animals. All the animals belonging to the treated group survived throughout the 14 days observation period after dosing. The data revealed that LD50 of the extract was greater than 2000 mg/kg b.w. There was no significant variation found in body weight and organ to body mass index. In comparison with control group, there was significant increase in levels of ALT, AST,Bilirubin, total proteins, globulin levels, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, platelet count, MCV, MCH, WBC count and lymphocytes whereas ALP and MCHC levels were reduced significantly. No significant changes were observed in HB, total RBC, total bilirubin, albumin. The methanol extract of aerial parts from Marsilea quadrifolia Linn had nontoxic effect on the biochemical and haematological parameters studied up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg. The lethal dose is therefore over 2000 mg/kg.
Keywords: Marsilea quadrifolia, Methanol, Albino mice, Snake bite
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