Pharmacologic Therapy for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome
A pregnant woman who happens on a continuous exposure to various therapeutic agents during her gestation period may give birth to a neonate suffering from Neonatal Syndrome. The most common cause of NAS are opioids such as heroin, codeine and morphine and is commonly termed as opioid withdrawal syndrome but also other legally or illegally sold substances over the counter can contribute to this syndrome. Infants also develop some kind of addition in the womb when exposed to some antidepressants such as barbiturates and benzodiazepine. There are two kinds of NAS that exist, prenatal NAS which is as a result of the termination of medication being used with a pregnant mother and postnatal NAS which occurs as a result of the termination of drugs directly to the infant. The most frequently occurring syndrome consists of tremor, insomnia, perspiration, Common syndrome according to the frequency includes tremor, high-pitched sneezing sound, increased muscle tone, regurgitation and emesis, loose stools, s, excoriation, mottling, nasal congestion low-grade fever, and tachypnea. Opioid withdrawal symptoms can be a reflection of other symptoms of other conditions in a new-born, such as infections, hypoglycaemia, hypocalcaemia, hypothyroidism, and brain complications (eg., cerebral palsy). The need and time frame of treatment is reduced by breastfeeding. All NAS babies need to be followed up regularly. Not all infants will require treatment with pharmacotherapy, but all should receive non-pharmacologic interventions.
Keywords: Neonatal abstinence syndrome; Nonpharmacological management; Methadone; Morphine; Opioids; Pharmacological management; Phenobarbital; Protocol.
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