Action of Nanosponges in absorption of bacterial toxins
Existing detoxification scaffold such as antisera, monoclonal antibodies, small-molecule inhibitors, and molecularly imprinted polymers act by targeting the toxins. Special and specific treatments are required for different diseases. Here we show a biomimetic toxin nanosponge that acts as a toxin decoy in vivo. The nanosponge consists of a polymeric nanoparticle core surrounded by red blood cell membranes. It absorbs membrane-damaging toxins and diverts them away from their cellular targets. Most common toxins in nature, the Pore forming toxins (PFTs), distort cells by forming pores in membranes of the cell and alter their permeability. Apart from their roles in bacterial pathogenesis, PFTs are commonly engaged in venomous attacks by poisonous animals including sea anemones, scorpions, and snakes.
Keywords: Nanosponges, pore forming toxins, absorption.
2. Krukemeyer, M., Krenn, V., Huebner, F., Wagner, W. & Resch, R. History and Possible Uses of Nanomedicine Based on Nanoparticles and Nanotechnological Progress. Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology, 2015; 6:1.
3. Wagner, V., Dullaart, A., Bock, A.-K. & Zweck, A. 2006. The emerging nanomedicine landscape. Nat Biotech, 24, 1211-1217.
4. Kalepu, S. & Nekkanti, V. Insoluble drug delivery strategies: review of recent advances and business prospects. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B, 2015; 5:442-453.
5. Ventola, C. L. The nanomedicine revolution: part 1: emerging concepts. Pt, 2012; 37:512-25.
6. Fang, R. H., Hu, C. M. & Zhang, L. Nanoparticles disguised as red blood cells to evade the immune system. Expert Opin Biol Ther, 2012; 12:385-9.
7. Kumari, A., Yadav, S. K. & Yadav, S. C. Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles based drug delivery systems. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 2010; 75:1-18.
8. Meyer, R. A., Sunshine, J. C. & Green, J. J. Biomimetic particles as therapeutics. Trends Biotechnol, 2015; 33:514-24.
9. Hu, C. M., Fang, R. H., Luk, B. T. & Zhang, L. Polymeric nanotherapeutics: clinical development and advances in stealth functionalization strategies. Nanoscale, 20142014; 6:65-75.
10. Antonelli, A., Sfara, C., Rahmer, J., Gleich, B., Borgert, J. & Magnani, M. Red blood cells as carriers in magnetic particle imaging. Biomed Tech (Berl), 2013; 58:517-25.
11. Krishnamurthy, S., Gnanasammandhan, M. K., Xie, C., Huang, K., Cui, M. Y. & Chan, J. M. Monocyte cell membrane-derived nanoghosts for targeted cancer therapy. Nanoscale, 2016; 8:6981-6985.
12. Roberta C, Francesco T, Wander T. Cyclodextrin based nanosponges for drug delivery, J inclphenom Macrocycl Chem, 2006; 56:209-213.
13. L. Guo, G. Gao, X. Liu and F. Liu, Preparation and characterization of TiO2 nanosponge, Mater. Chem. Phys. 2008; 111:322–325.
14. Honey Tiwari et al. A Review on Nanosponges, World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science, 2014; 3(11).
15. Clatworthy AE, Pierson E, Hung DT. Nat. Chem. Biol. 2007; 3:541.
16. Rasko DA, Sperandio V. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 2010; 9:117.
17. Los FCO, Randis TM, Aroian RV, Ratner AJ. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 2013; 77:173.
18. Gilbert RJC. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 2002; 59:832
19. Beghini DG, Hernandez-Oliveira S, Rodrigues-Simioni L, Novello JC, Hyslop S, Marangoni S. Toxicon. 2004; 44:141.
20. Cheng LW, Henderson TD II, Patfield S, Stanker LH, He X. Toxins. 2013; 5:1845.
21. Hung DT, Shakhnovich EA, Pierson E, Mekalanos JJ. Science. 2005; 310:670
22. Hoshino Y, Koide H, Furuya K, Haberaecker WW III, Lee S-H, Kodama T, Kanazawa H, Oku N, Shea KJ. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2012; 109:33
23. Hu C-MJ, Zhang L, Aryal S, Cheung C, Fang RH, Zhang L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2011; 108:10980.
24. Hu C-MJ, Fang RH, Copp J, Luk BT, Zhang L. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2013; 8:336.
25. Rosado CJ, et al. The MACPF/CDC family of pore-forming toxins. Cell Microbiol. 2008; 10:1765–1774.
26. Shoham M. Antivirulence agents against MRSA. Future Med Chem. 2011; 3:775–777.
27. O’Hanley P, Lalonde G, Ji G. Alpha-hemolysin contributes to the pathogenicity of piliated digalactoside-binding Escherichia coli in the kidney: efficacy of an alpha-hemolysin vaccine in preventing renal injury in the BALB/c mouse model of pyelonephritis. Infect Immun. 1991; 59:1153–1161.
28. Edelson BT, Unanue ER. Intracellular antibody neutralizes Listeria growth. Immunity. 2001; 14:503–512
29. Nakouzi A, Rivera J, Rest RF, Casadevall A. Passive administration of monoclonal antibodies to anthrolysin O prolong survival in mice lethally infected with Bacillus anthracis. BMC Microbiol. 2008; 8:159.
30. Kirkham LA, et al. Construction and immunological characterization of a novel nontoxic protective pneumolysin mutant for use in future pneumococcal vaccines. Infect Immun. 2006; 74:586–593
31. Andreeva-Kovalevskaya Zh I, Solonin AS, Sineva EV, Ternovsky VI. Pore-forming proteins and adaptation of living organisms to environmental conditions. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2008; 73:1473–1492.
32. Bayley H. Membrane-protein structure: Piercing insights. Nature. 2009; 459:651–652
33. Che-Ming J. Hu, Ronnie H. Fang, Jonathan Copp, Brian T. Luk, and Liangfang Zhang, A biomimetic nanosponge that absorbs pore-forming toxins Department of NanoEngineering and Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA, 2013.
34. Patel SB, Patel HJ and Seth AK, “Nanosponge Drug Delivery System: An Overview”, Journal of Global Pharma Tech., 2010; 2(8):1-9.
35. Uday B. Bolmal, F.V. Manvi, Kotha Rajkumar, Sai Sowjanya Palla, Anusha Paladugu1 and Korivi Ramamohan Reddy, Recent Advances in Nanosponges as Drug Delivery System, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Nanotechnology, 2013; 6(1).
36. Vikesh Chhabria, Development of nanosponges from erythrocyte ghosts for removal of streptolysin-O and α haemolysin from mammalian blood, Thesis submitted in the University of Central Lancashire, May 2017
37. Hu CM, et al. Erythrocyte membrane-camouflaged polymeric nanoparticles as a biomimetic delivery platform. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2011; 108:10980–10985.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).