Sperm Immobilization Potential of Saponin Extract of Ziziphus mauritiana
The contraceptive potential of Saponin extract of Ziziphus mauritiana is evaluated by human sperm immobilization assay. The leaves of Ziziphus mauritiana were subjected to successive solvent extraction. The dried methanolic extract was further solvent extracted with water saturated n-butanol and both the layers were separated. The organic layer was acidified with 1 N KOH to obtain the raw saponin extract. The extract was screened for spermicidal activity against human spermatozoa. The immobilization assay was performed on human ejaculate in 1:1 ratio according to modified waller method. Concentration showing motility inhibition was subjected to sperm viability assay using bakers medium. The sperm cell plasma membrane integrity study was done using hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test. The saponin extract at 0.1mg/ml & 0.5mg/ml concentration immobilize 80.68% to 100% and none of the spermatozoa recovered their motility in revival assay. The decrease in sperm viability was observed in range 35.6-56.68%. Significant morphological changes were observed under phase contrast microscope. The present study has pointed out that saponin extract shows good human spermatozoa immobilization capacity at concentration 0.5mg/ml. The damage to the sperm membrane architecture and impairment of functional integrity of the plasma membrane was evidenced by significant reduction in sperm viability and tail curling.
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