Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, a modern epidemic: An overview
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder affecting women, but can be very difficult to diagnose and treat due to vague presentation of symptoms and a lack of standardization in treatment. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenic manifestation like acne, hirsutism and chronic anovulation and is associated with metabolic derangement such as hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes mellitus.The cause of polycystic ovary syndrome is still unclear due to its multifactorial complexity; however, it has been observed and understood that there are several environmental and genetic factors, such as genetic variations like mutations and polymorphisms, differential regulation of genes, and pathways, may contribute to the pathogenesis of PCOS.The occurrence of considerable heterogeneity in clinical symptoms and endocrine features associated with PCOS implies that some women with Polycystic Ovaries on ultrasound scan may even exhibit none of the other features of PCOS.There is a spectacular increase in the prevalence of PCOS all over the world especially in Asia. The condition seems to be on a rise in Kashmir valley although systematic studies on the subject are still underway. In this review article, we will briefly provide an overview about the polycystic ovary syndrome.
Keywords: Polycystic ovary syndrome, Genetic basis, clinical presentation
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