Anti-HIV/AIDS Drugs: An Overview

  • Sonali Pawar
  • Santosh Waghmare
  • Bhagyashri Gawde
  • Pranit Kale
  • Yash Johri


Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is an enveloped virus, belonging to the viral family Retroviridae. It is a highly evolved virus which has grasped the attention of all researchers with its special features like morphology, genetics and also by its emerging nature3. The special feature of all retro viruses is the presence of an enzyme called Reverse transcriptase which plays major role in reverse transcription process4. HIV enters the host body, damages immune system and will cause life-threatening opportunistic infections finally leads to AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome).Many advances have been made in the prevention of HIV transmission and management of HIV/AIDS since the virus was discovered in the early 1980s7. One of the most important discoveries has been antiretroviral treatment, which can halt the replication of HIV and ease symptoms, turning AIDS into a chronic condition instead of a rapidly terminal illness. Despite advances, HIV remains a major public health challenge. This article reviews the genus, life cycle, and transmission of HIV, as well as workplace issues surrounding the virus and the challenges of developing an HIV vaccine12.

Keywords: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.


Download data is not yet available.


1) Onen NF, Overton ET: A review of premature frailty in HIV-infected persons, another manifestation of HIVrelated accelerated aging, Current Aging Science, 2011; 4:33–41.
2) Pathai S, Gilbert C, Weiss HA, Cook C, Wood R, Bekker LG et al.: Frailty in HIV-infected adults in South Africa, JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2013; 62:43–51.
3) Onen NF, Agbebi A, Shacham E, Stamm K, Onen AR, and Overton ET, Frailty among HIV-infected persons in an urban outpatient care setting. The Journal of Infection: 2009; 59(5):346–352.
4) Sandkovsky U, Robertson KR, Meza JL et al., Pilot study of younger and older HIV-infected adults using traditional and novel functional assessments, HIV Clinical Trials, 2014; 14(4):165–174.
5) Mahy M, Autenrieth CS, Stanecki K, and Wynd S, Increasing trends in HIV prevalence among people aged 50 years and older: evidence from estimates and survey data, AIDS.2014; 28(4):S453–S459.
6) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, CDC, Atlanta, Ga, USA, 2006,( http://www.cdc .gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/reports)
7) Hontelez JA, Vlas SD, R. Baltussen et al., The impact of antiretroviral treatment on the age composition of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, AIDS, 2012; 26(1):S19–S30.
8) Phillips AN, Lee CA, Elford JA et al., More rapid progression to AIDS in older HIV-infected people: the role of CD4+ T-cell counts, Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes; 1991; 4(10):970–975.
9) Balslev U, Monforte AD, Stergiou G et al., Influence of age on rates of new AIDS-defining diseases and survival in 6546 AIDS patients, Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1997; 29(4):337–343.
10) Jiang H, Xie N, Cao B et al., Determinants of progression to AIDS and death following HIV diagnosis: a retrospective cohort study in Wuhan, China, PLoS ONE. 2013; 8(12) Article ID e83078.
11) Bonnet F, Thiebaut A, Chene G et al., Determinants of clinical progression in antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected patients starting highly active antiretroviral therapy. Aquitaine Cohort, France, 1996–2002, HIV Medicine.2005; 6(3):198–205.
12) Grabar S, Kousignian I, Sobel A et al., Immunologic and clinical responses to highly active antiretroviral therapy over 50 years of age. Results from the French Hospital Database on HIV, AIDS, 2004; 18(15):2029–2038.
13) Viard JP, Mocroft A, Chiesi A et al., Influence of age on CD4 cell recovery in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy: evidence from the Euro SIDA study, The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2001; 183 (8):1290–1294.
14) Costagliola D, Demographics of HIV and aging, Current Opinion in HIV & AIDS. 2014; 9 (4):294–301.
15) Negin J and Cumming RG, HIV infection in older adults in sub-Saharan Africa: extrapolating prevalence from existing data, Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2011; 88(11):847–853.
16) Eduardo E, Lamb MR, Kandula S et al., Characteristics and outcomes among older HIV-positive adults enrolled in HIV programs in four Sub-Saharan African countries, 2014; 9(7): Article ID e103864.
17) Lamb MR, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1993 Revised classification system for HIV infection and expanded surveillance case definition for AIDS among adolescents and adults, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.1992; 41(17):1–19.
18) Palella FJ, Delaney FM, Moorman AC et al., Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. HIV Outpatient Study Investigators, The New England Journal of Medicine.1998; 338(13):853–860.
19) C. Lewden, T. May, E. Rosenthal et al., “Changes in causesof death among adults infected by HIV between 2000 and 2005: the ‘Mortalit´e 2000 and 2005’ surveys (ANRS EN19 and Mortavic),” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2000; 48(5):590–598.
20) Mack KA and Ory MG, AIDS and older Americans at the end of the twentieth century, Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2016; 33(2):S68–S75.
21) Zablotsky D and Kennedy M, Risk factors and HIV transmission to midlife and older women: knowledge, options, and the initiation of safer sexual practices, Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2003; 33 (2):S122–S130.
22) Orlando G, Meraviglia G., Cordier C. et al., Antiretroviral treatment and age-related comorbidities in a cohort of older HIV-infected patients, HIV Medicine. 2006; 7 (8): 549–557.
23) Mensforth S, Goodall L, Bodasing N, and Coultas J, Late diagnosis among our ageing HIV population: a cohort study, Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2014: 17 (3), Article ID 19692.
24) MannM 'AIDS: A worldwide pandemic' in Current Topics in AIDS 1989;2” 201-203
25) Hymes KB, Kaposi's sarcoma in homosexual men: A report of eight cases' Lancet.1981; 2(8247): 598-600
26) Masur A; An Outbreak of community acquired Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: initial manifestation of cellular immune dysfunction' The New England Journal of Medicine. 1981; 305(24):1431-1438
1 Views | 5 Downloads
How to Cite
Pawar, S., Waghmare, S., Gawde, B., Kale, P., & Johri, Y. (2019). Anti-HIV/AIDS Drugs: An Overview. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 9(3), 599-608.