Varicose Vein of Bilateral Lower Limb: A Review
Varicose veins are tortuous, winded veins in the subcutaneous tissues of legs. These veins are visible and can be easily diagnosed clinically. The varicose veins are usually incompetent and may result in the reflux of blood and ultimately venous hypertension. Varicose veins are usually found asymptomatic however it may result in local pain, heaviness in the limb, change in the color, itching, dryness and may develop ankle swelling including cramps. Conditions that increase pressure on leg veins such as obesity, sedentary life style, lack of activity or exercise, hormonal fluctuations during pregnancy, menopause, smoking, heavy weight lifting may lead to varicose veins.
Keywords: - Varicose, Reflux, Vein, Incompetent.
2. Kate Griesmann (March 16, 2011). "Myth or Fact: Crossing Your Legs Causes Varicose Veins"(https://web.archive.org/web/20140305174414/http://www.dukehealth.org/health_library/health_articles/myth-or-fact crossing-your-legs-ca uses-varicose-veins). Duke University Health System. Archived fromt he original (http://www.dukehealth.org/health_li brary/health_articles/myth-or-fact-crossing-your-legs-causes-varicose-vein so)n 2014-03-05. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
3. Franceschi, Claude, "Physiopathologie Hémodynamique de l'Insufisf ance veineuse", p. 49 inC hirurgie des veines des Membres Inférieurs, AERCV editions 23 rue Royale 75008 Paris France, 1996.
4. Hobbs JT "Varicose veins arising from the pelvis due to ovarian vein incompetence" Int J Clin Pract., October 2005; 59: 1195–203.
5. Giannoukas AD, Dacie JE, Lumley JS., "Recurrent varicose veins of both lower limbs due to bilateral ovarian vein incompetence". Ann Vasc Surg., July 2000; 14: 397–400.
6. Marsh P, Holdstock J, Harrison C, Smith C, Price BA, Whiteley MS., "Pelvic vein reflux in female patients with varicose veins: comparison of incidence between a specialist private vein clinic and the vascular department of a National Health Service District General Hospital"P. hlebology., June 2009; 24: 108–13.
7. Whiteley A.M.; Taylor D.C.; Dos Santos S.J.; Whiteley M.S., "Pelvic Venous Reflux is a Major Contributory Cause of Recurrent Varicose Veins in More Than a Quarter of Women". Journal of Vascular Surgery: Venous and Lymphatic Disorders., 2014; 2: 390–396.
8. Whiteley MS., "Part One: For the Motion. Venous Perforator Surgery is Proven and Does Reduce Recurrences". European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery., September 2014; 48 (3):239–42.
9. Rutherford EE, Kianifard B, Cook SJ, Holdstock JM, Whiteley MS.,"Incompetent perforating veins are associated with recurrent varicose veins".E uropean Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery., May 2001; 21 (5):458–60.
10. Pathophysiology for the Boards and Wards, Fourth Edition
11. Lee AJ, Evans CJ, Allan PL, Ruckley CV, Fowkes GFR. Lifestyle factors and the risk of varicose veins. J Clin Epidemiol 2003; 56:171-9.
12. Campbell WB, Decaluwe H, MacIntyre J, Thompson JF, Cowan AR. Most patents with varicose veins have fears or concerns about the future, in addition to their presenting symptoms. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2006; 31:332-4.
13. Van Rij AM, Chai J, Hill GB, Christie RA.,"Incidence of deep vein thrombosis after varicose vein surgeryB"r. J Surg., 2004; 91 (12):1582–5.
14. Munasinghe A, Smith C, Kianifard B, Price BA, Holdstock JM, Whiteley MS.,"Strip-tract revascularization after stripping of the great saphenous vein".B r J Surg., 2007; 94 (7): 840–3.
15. Hammarsten J, Pedersen P, Cederlund CG, Campanello M., "Long saphenous vein saving surgery for varicose veins. A long-term follow-up".E ur J Vasc Surg., 1990; 4 (4): 361–4.
16. Bellmunt-Montoya, S; Escribano, JM; Dilme, J; Martinez-Zapata, MJ., "CHAIV method for the treatment of chronic venous insuf ficiency". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (6): 29 June 2015; CD009648.
17. Milone M, Salvatore G, Maietta P, Sosa Fernandez LM, Milone Recurrent varicose veins of the lower limbs after surgery. Role of surgical technique (stripping vs. CHIVA) and surgeon's experience. F. G Chir. 2011 Nov-Dec; 32(11-12):460-3.
18. Carandina S, Mari C, De Palma M, Marcellino MG, Cisno C, Legnaro A, et aVl. aricose Vein Stripping vs Haemodynamic Correction (CHIVA): a long term randomised trial. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery. 2008; 35(2):230–7
19. Parés JO, Juan J, Tellez R, Mata A, Moreno C, Quer FX et l. Varicose vein surgery: stripping versus the CHIVA Method: a randomized controlled trial .Annals of Surgery 2010; 251(4):624–31.
20. Iborra-Ortega E, Barjau-Urrea E, Vila-Coll R, Ballon-Carazas H, Cairols-Castellote MA.C omparative study oftwo surgical techniques in the treatment of varicose veins of the lower extremities: results after five years of followup. Estudio comparativo de dos técnicas quirúrgicas en el tratamiento de las varices de las extremidades inferiores: resultados tras cinco años de seguimiento]. Angiología 2006; 58(6):459–68.
21. P.Zamboni et al: MinimallyI nvasive Surgical management of primary venous Ulcer vs. Compressio.n Eur J vasc Endovasc Surg 00,1 6 (2003)
22. Bellmunt-Montoya S, Escribano JM, Dilme J, Martinez-Zapata MJ. CHIAV Method for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD009648.
23. Chan, C.-Y.a, Chen, T.-C.b, Hsieh, Y.-K.a, Huang, J.-H.c. Retrospective comparison of clinical outcomes between endovenous laser and saphenous vein-sparing surgery for treatment of varicose vein, World Journal of Surgery, 2011; 35(7):1679-1686
24. Hemodynamic classification and CHIVA treatment of varicose veins in lower extremities (VVLE) Department of Vascular Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, China
25. Marta Zmudzinski, BSc, Pierre Malo, MD, FCSP, Christine Hall, MD, FRCPC, Allen Hayashi, MD, FRCSCC HIVA, A prospective study of a vein sparing technique for the management of varicose vein diseas (ehttp://www.americanjour nalofsurgery.com/article/S0002-9610(16)31046-7/fulltext) The American Journal of Surgery - 21 Mars 2017.
26. Mark D. Iafrati And Thomas F. O’donnell Jr. Rutherford’s Vascular Surgery And Endovascular Therapy, Ninth Edition - Saphenous-Sparing Operations 2030; Section 23, Chapter154 2018 ISBN=978-0-323-42791-3
27. Shouten R, Mollen RM, Kuijpers HC., "A comparison between cryosurgery and conventional stripping in varicose vein surgery: perioperative features and complications"A. nnals of Vascular Surgery., 2006; 20 (3): 306–11.
28. Pak, L. K. et al. "Veins & Lymphatics," in Lange's Current Surgical Diagnosis & Treatment, 11th ed., McGraw-Hill.
29. Tisi, Paul V; Beverley, Catherine; Rees, Angie., Tisi, Paul V, ed. "Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Chapter: Injection sclerotherapy for varicose veins"C. ochrane Database Syst Rev (4): 2006; CD001732. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17054141).
30. Thibault, Paul., Sclerotherapy and Ultrasound-Guided Sclerotherap,y The Vein Book, John J. Bergan (ed.), 2007.
31. Padbury A, Benveniste GL., "Foam echosclerotherapy of the small saphenous veinA".u stralian and New Zealand Journal of Phlebology., December 2004; 8 (1).
32. Finkelmeier, William R., "Sclerotherapy", Ch. 12 in ACS Surgery: Principles & Practice, WebMD, ISBN 0-9748327-4-X., 2004.
33. Scurr JR, Fisher RK, Wallace SB., "Anaphylaxis Following Foam Sclerotherapy: A Life Threatening Complication of Non Invasive Treatment For Varicose Veins". EJVES Extra., 2007; 13 (6):87–89.
34. Malskat WS, Stokbroekx MA, van der Geld CW, Nijsten TE, van den Bos RR., "Temperature Profiles of 980- and 1,470-nm Endovenous Laser Ablation, Endovenous Radiofrequency Ablation and Endovenous Steam Ablation". Lasers Med Sci., March 29, 2014; 29: 423–9.
35. Medical Services Advisory Committee, E LA for varicose veins (http://www.msac.gov.au/internet/msac/publishing.nsf/Content/2E0BACBB8704139ACA25745E001C2F21/$File/1113report.pd.f )MSAC application 1113, Dept of Health and Ageing, Commonwealth of Australia, 2008.
36. Elmore FA, Lackey D., “Effectiveness of ELA in eliminating superficial venous reflux” P.helbology., 2008; 23 (1):21-23.
37. Van den Bos, RR; Malskat, WS; De Maeseneer, MG; De Roos, KP; Groeneweg, DA; Kockaert, MA; Neumann, HA; Nijsten, T (2014-06-30). "Randomized clinical trial of endovenous laser ablation versus steam ablation (LAST trial) for great saphenous veins". Br J Surg. 101: 1077–1083.
38. Milleret, René., "Obliteration of varicose veins with superheated steam"P. hlebolymphology., 2011; 19 (4):174–181.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).