Design, Development and Characterization of Nifedipine Microspheres

  • Arun Kumar Chalamalasetty
  • Boggula Narender
  • Bolledla Nirosha
  • Bakshi Vasudha
  • Peddapalli Himabindu


Back ground: Nifedipine is a calcium channel blocker and is used in treatment of angina of angina pectoris and hypertension. Nifedipine readily and almost completely absorbed from GIT, but undergoes first pass metabolism, resulting in low oral bioavailability is about 50%.

Aim: The aim of the present study was to prepare and evaluate the microspheres of nifedipine with a goal of improving the bioavailability and giving a prolonged release of drug.

Method: Emulsification (o/w) solvent evaporation method was employed in the preparation of nifedipine microparticles using ethyl cellulose and combination of ethyl cellulose and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose as the polymers.

Results: FT-IR spectra of physical mixture showed no significant shifting of the peaks therefore it reveals that the drug is compatible with the polymer used. The percentage yield obtained in all the formulations was good and in the range of 59.25-94.44%. Among all the formulations, formulation with combination of ethyl cellulose and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose polymers M9 showed high amount of drug release i.e. (91.23%) in 12hrs. Drug release from microspheres with small mean particle size was faster than those with large mesh particle size and followed Higuchi model of kinetics.

Conclusion: The obtained results could be used as essence to develop microspheres, which bypasses first-pass metabolism and results in the improvement of bioavailability. Hence, the present study has been a satisfactory attempt to formulate microspheres of nifedipine, with a view of improving its oral bioavailability and giving a prolonged release of drug.

Keywords: Microspheres, nifedipine, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose E5, ethyl cellulose.


Download data is not yet available.


1. Alagusundaram M, Madhu Sudana Chetty C, Umashankari K, Attuluri Venkata Badarinath, Lavanya C and Ramkanth S. Microspheres As A Novel Drug Delivery Sysytem - A Review. International Journal of ChemTech Research 2009; 1(3):526-34.
2. Satheesh Madhav NV, Kala S. Review on Microparticulate Drug Delivery System. Int J PharmTech Res 2011; 3(3):1-10.
3. Jingjun H, Rodney JW, Catherine MB, Joseph BS. Nifedipine solid dispersion in micro particles of ammonium methacrylate copolymer and Ethylcellulose binary blend for controlled drug delivery Effect of drug loading on release kinetics. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 2006; 319:44-54.
4. Wen-Ho C, Tong-Rong T, Shu-Hui H, Thau-Ming C. Preparation and in-vitro evaluation of nifedipine loaded albumin microspheres cross-linked by different glutaraldehyde concentrations. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 1996; 144:241-5.
5. Lian-Yan W, Guang-Hui M, Zhi-Guo S. Preparation of uniform sized chitosan microspheres by membrane emulsification technique and application as a carrier of protein drug. Journal of Controlled Release 2005; 106:62– 75
6. Himabindu P, Krishna Mohan C, Nagaraj B. Design and in vitro characterization of mucoadhesive buccal patches of duloxetine hydrochloride. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017; 9(2):52-9.
7. Sinha VR, Singla AK, Wadhawan S, Kaushik R, Kumria R. Chitosan microspheres as a potential carrier for drugs. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 2004; 274:1-33.
8. Sandile M, Khamanga NP, Tsitsi N, Hendry H, Roderick BW. The Evaluation of Eudragit Microcapsules Manufactured by Solvent Evaporation Using USP Apparatus. Faculty of Pharmacy, Rhodes University, Grahams town, South Africa 6140:15-22.
9. Dinarvandr, Zainali B, Atyabi F. Effects of formulation variables on nifedipine microspheres prepared by solvent evaporation technique. Daru 2001; 9:33-40.
10. Freitas S, Merkle HP, Gander B. Microencapsulation by solvent extraction/evaporation: reviewing the state of the art of microsphere preparation process technology. J Control Rel 2005; 102:313-32.
11. Gibaud S, Bonneville A, Astier A. Preparation of 3,4-diaminopyridine microparticles by solvent-evaporation methods. Int J Pharm 2002; 242(1-2):197-201.
12. Trivedi P, Verma A, Garud N. Preparation and characterization of aceclofenac microspheres. Asian J Pharm 2008; 2:110-5.
13. Phutane P et al. In vitro Evaluation of Novel Sustained Release Microspheres of Glipizide Prepared by the Emulsion Solvent Diffusion-Evaporation Method. J Young Pharm 2010; 2(1):35-41.
14. Higuchi T. Mechanism of sustained action medication: Theoretical analysis of rate of release of solid drugs dispersed in solid matrices. J Pharm Sci 1963; 2:1145-9.
15. Korsmeyer RW, Gurny R, Doelker E, Buri P, Peppas NA. Mechanism of solute release from porous hydro-matrices and other factors may be responsible. Int J Pharm 1983; 15:25-35.
16. Himabindu P, Vasudha B, Narender B. Formulation, In Vitro and Ex Vivo Characterization of Mucoadhesive Buccal Tablets for Antihypertensive Drug. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018; 11(8):402-11.
2 Views | 7 Downloads
How to Cite
Chalamalasetty, A. K., Narender, B., Nirosha, B., Vasudha, B., & Himabindu, P. (2019). Design, Development and Characterization of Nifedipine Microspheres. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 9(3), 138-146.

Most read articles by the same author(s)