Skin whitening efficacy of Gnetum gnemon L. seed extract
Gnetum gnemon L. (Melinjo) seed extract (MSE) is potential as skin-whitening agent because it contains trans-resveratrol and its derivatives, to inhibit tyrosinase in melanogenesis process. Using MSE in cosmetic products will be challenging due to resveratrol chemical instability and bioavailability in the skin. Many cosmetic products have been developed using lipid particle technology to improve their limitation. The objective of this research was to examine the skin safety and whitening efficacy of MSE-loaded lipid particle gel in healthy human subjects.
Materials and Methods: Single occlusive closed patch test for 24 h was used as the skin irritation analysis. Irritation responses were graded after patch removal and compared to the control for evaluation.
Results: The result showed the test product did not induce skin irritation effect. The skin melanin index was statistically significant decreased (P < 0.05) after 28 days of application the test product, with the averaged by 3.50%, and skin melanin index changed by increase 0.75% in the control group.
Conclusion: Application MSE-loaded lipid particle gel can brighten the skin, without cause irritation under normal conditions of use.
Abbreviations Used: α-MSH: α-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone; MITF: Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor; MSE: Melinjo Seed Extract.
Keywords: Gel, Gnetum Gnemon, Melinjo Seed Extract, Resveratrol, Skin Whitening
2. Schiaffino MV. Signaling pathways in melanosome biogenesis and pathology. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2010; 42:1094-104.
3. Lin JW, Chiang HM, Lin YC, Wen KC. Natural products with skin-whitening effects. J Food Drug Anal 2008; 16:1-10.
4. Gillbro JM, Olsson MJ. The melanogenesis and mechanisms of skin-lightening agents-existing and new approaches. Int J Cosmet Sci 2011; 33:210-21.
5. Cabanes J, Chazarra S, Garcia-Carmona F. Kojic acid, a cosmetic skin whitening agent, is a slow-binding inhibitor of catecholase activity of tyrosinase. J Pharm Pharmacol 1994; 46:982-5.
6. Maeda K, Fukuda M. Arbutin: Mechanism of its depigmenting action in human melanocyte culture. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1996; 276:765-9.
7. Barua CC, Haloi P, Barua IC. Gnetum gnemon Linn: A comprehensive review on its biological, pharmacological, and pharmacognostical potentials. Int J Pharm Phytochem Res 2015; 7:531-9.
8. Tani H, Hikami S, Iizuna S, Yoshimatsu M, Asama T, Ota H, et al. Pharmacokinetics and safety of resveratrol derivatives in humans after oral administration of melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) seed extract powder. J Agric Food Chem 2014; 62:1999-2007.
9. Tatefuji T, Yanagihara M, Fukushima S, Hashimoto K. Safety assessment of melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) seed extract: Acute and subchronic toxicity studies. Food Chem Toxicol 2014; 67:230-5.
10. Kato E, Tokunaga Y, Sakan F. Stilbenoids isolated from the seeds of melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) and their biological activity. J Agric Food Chem 2009; 57:2544-9.
11. Siswoyo TA, Mardiana E, Lee KO, Hoshokawa K. Isolation and characterization of antioxidant protein fractions from melinjo (Gnetum gnemon) seeds. J Agric Food Chem 2011; 59:5648-56.
12. Kato H, Samizo M, Kawabata R, Takano F, Ohta T. Stilbenoids from the melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) fruit modulate cytokine production in murine peyer's patch cells ex vivo. Planta Med 2011; 77:1027-34.
13. Narayanan NK, Kunimasa K, Yamori Y, Mori M, Mori H, Nakamura K, et al. Antitumor activity of melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) seed extract in human and murine tumor models in vitro and in a colon-26 tumor-bearing mouse model in vivo. Cancer Med 2015; 4:1767-80.
14. Konno H, Kanai Y, Katagiri M, Watanabe T, Mori A, Ikuta T, et al. Melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) seed extract decreases serum uric acid levels in nonobese Japanese males: A randomized controlled study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013; 2013:589169.
15. Park J, Boo YC. Isolation of resveratrol from vitis viniferae caulis and its potent inhibition of human tyrosinase. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013; 2013:645257.
16. Park J, Park JH, Suh HJ, Lee IC, Koh J, Boo YC, et al. Effects of resveratrol, oxyresveratrol, and their acetylated derivatives on cellular melanogenesis. Arch Dermatol Res 2014; 306:475-87.
17. Lee TH, Seo JO, Baek SH, Kim SY. Inhibitory effects of resveratrol on melanin synthesis in ultraviolet B-induced pigmentation in Guinea pig skin. Biomol Ther (Seoul) 2014; 22:35-40.
18. Yanagihara M, Yoshimatsu M, Inoue A, Kanno T, Tatefuji T, Hashimoto K, et al. Inhibitory effect of gnetin C, a resveratrol dimer from melinjo (Gnetum gnemon), on tyrosinase activity and melanin biosynthesis. Biol Pharm Bull 2012; 35:993-6.
19. Gokce EH, Korkmaz E, Dellera E, Sandri G, Bonferoni MC, Ozer O, et al. Resveratrol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles versus nanostructured lipid carriers: Evaluation of antioxidant potential for dermal applications. Int J Nanomedicine 2012; 7:1841-50.
20. Amri A, Chaumeil JC, Sfar S, Charrueau C. Administration of resveratrol: What formulation solutions to bioavailability limitations? J Control Release 2012; 158:182-93.
21. Sun R, Zhao G, Ni S, Xia Q. Lipid-based nanocarriers with different lipid compositions for topical delivery of resveratrol: Comparative analysis of characteristics and performance. J Drug Del Sci Tech 2014; 24:591-600.
22. Muller RH, Mader K, Gohla S. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) for controlled drug delivery-a review. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2000; 50:161-77.
23. Tiyaboonchai W, Tungpradit W, Plianbangchang P. Formulation and characterization of curcuminoids loaded solid lipid nanoparticles. Int J Pharm 2007; 337:299-306.
24. Mehnert W, Mader K. Solid lipid nanoparticles: Production, characterization, and applications. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2001; 47:165-96.
25. Carlotti ME, Sapino S, Ugazio E, Gallarate M, Morel S. Resveratrol in solid lipid nanoparticles. J Dispers Sci Technol 2012; 33:465-71.
26. The European Cosmetic, Toiletry and Perfumery Association (COLIPA). Cosmetics Europe: Product Test Guidelines for the Assessment of Human Skin Compatibility; 1997. p. 1-22.
27. An SM, Ham H, Choi EJ, Shin MK, An SS, Kim HO, et al. Primary irritation index and safety zone of cosmetics: Retrospective analysis of skin patch tests in 7440 korean women during 12 years. Int J Cosmet Sci 2014; 36:62-7.
28. Lin CB, Babiarz L, Liebel F, Roydon Price E, Kizoulis M, Gendimenico GJ, et al. Modulation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor gene expression alters skin pigmentation. J Invest Dermatol 2002; 119:1330-40.
29. Wattanakrai P, Suwanachote S, Kulkollakarn S, Rajatanavin N. The study of human skin irritation of a novel herbal skin care product and ingredients by human single closed patch testing. J Med Assoc Thail 2007; 90:1116-22.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).