Evaluation of preliminary phytochemical screening, acute toxicity and antioxidant profile of Ocimum kilimandscharicum
Nature has offered us diverse curative herbs having with powerful antioxidant phytochemicals. Ocimum (Lamiaceae) is a notable source of volatile oils and flavouring agents in general and primarily of eugenol, methyl eugenol, linalool, methyl chavicol, etc. Karpoora Thulasi is a member of this genus; nevertheless, not much literature has been reported on its safety and antioxidant potential. In this investigation, we did a pre-clinical safety assessment of concentrate of O. kilimandscharicum on Sprague Dawley rodents. Toxicological concordat of the O. kilimandscharicum concentrate was carried out following OECD guidelines 423. Further, to verify the traditional efficacy and elucidate the mechanism, the present study compared in-vitro antioxidant activity of the plant by DPPH, ABTS and Hydroxyl radical scavenging method using ascorbic acid as the standard. In acute oral toxicity, no treatment-related death or toxic signs were observed. Moreover, the study revealed that the O. kilimandscharicum extract could be well tolerated up to the dose 2000 mg/kg body weight and could be classified as Category 5. Moreover, ABTS free radical activity of the extract was 79.2148 while that of DDPH Inhibition potential was found to be 70.72758. Our findings present substantiation that the crude extracts of O. kilimandscharicum is a likely source of natural antioxidants, and this justified its long-established uses.
Keywords: Ocimum kilimandscharicum, Acute Toxicity, In-vitro Antioxidant Activity DPPH, ABTS
2 Metlen, K.L., Aschehoug, E.T., Callaway, R.M., Plant behavioural ecology: dynamic plasticity in secondary metabolites. Plant Cell Environ. 2009 (32) 641–653
3. Nutan, Kumar N, Saxena G Cytotoxic effect of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br. on HCT 116 human colon cell lines , The Pharma Innovation Journal 2019; 8(1): 86-89
4. Lopez V, Akerreta S, Casanova E, Garcia-Mina JM, Cavero RY, Calvo MI. In vitro antioxidant and antirhizopus activities of Lamiaceae herbal extracts. Plant Foods Human Nutrition. 2007; 4(62):151-155.
5 Saxena G, Kumar N, Goswami R, Sameul A,Effects of Mangifera indica and Punica granatum extracts on semen after cryopreservation The Pharma Innovation Journal 2019; 8(1): 114-117
6. de Lima MC, Vieira CAL, Kassuya CAL, Cardoso JM, Alves MA, et al. Chemical composition and free radical-scavenging, anticancer and antiinflammatory activities of the essential oil from Ocimum kilimandscharicum. Phytomedicine 2014 21: 1298-1302.
7. Bansal S , Narnoliya, L K, Mishra B, Chandra M , Yadav R K , Sangwan N S HMG-CoA reductase from Camphor Tulsi (Ocimum kilimandscharicum) regulated MVA dependent biosynthesis of diverse terpenoids in homologous and heterologous plant systems. Scientific Reports 2018 (8), 3547
8. Thayil S M. Thyagarajan S.P., Methanol and aqueous extracts of Ocimum kilimandscharicum (Karpuratulasi) inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in vitro. Int. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem. Res. 2016,8, 1099–1103.
9.Calixto JB. Efficacy, safety, quality control, marketing and regulatory guidelines for herbal medicines (phytotherapeutic agents). Braz J Med Biol Res. 2000;33(2):179–89.
10. De Smet PA. Adverse effects of herbal remedies. Adverse Drug React Bull. 1997;183(1):695–8.
11 Suanarunsawat T, Boonnak T, Na Ayutthaya WD, Thirawarapan S. Anti-hyperlipidemic and cardioprotective effects of Ocimum sanctum L. fixed oil in rats fed a high fat diet. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;21:387–400
12 Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods, London. Chapman and Hall, Ltd, 1973, 49-188.
13 Nutan, Nitin Kumar and Gaurav Saxena. Cytotoxic effect of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br. on HCT 116 human colon cell lines. 2019; 8(1): 86-89.
14 OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals: 423; 2001. Acute oral toxicity- Acute Toxic Class Method.
15 Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M. E., Berset, C. . Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-Food science and Technology,1995 28, 25–30.
16 Miller, N. J., Rice-Evans, C., Davies, M. J., Gopinathan, V., & Milner, A. A novel method for measuring antioxidant capacity and its application to monitoring the antioxidant status in premature neonates. Clinical Science, 1993 ;84, 407–412.
17. Almeida, M. M., Sousa, P. H., Arriaga, A. M., Prado, G. M., Magalhães, C. E., Maia, G. A., et al. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of fresh exotic fruits from northeastern Brazil. Food Research International, 2011, 44, 2155–2159.
18 Silva, B.M., P.B. Andrade, P. Valentão, F., Ferreres,R.M., Seabra, M.A., Ferreira, Quince, (Cydonia oblonga Miller) fruit (Pulp, Peel and Seed) and jam: Antioxidant activity. J. Agr. Food Chem. 2004, (52) 4705-4712.
19 Schilter, B., C. Andersson, R. Anton, A. Constable and J. Kleiner et al., 2003. Guidance for the safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations for use in food and food supplements. Food Chem. Toxicol., 41: 1625-1649.
20. Rufino, M. S., Alves, R. E., Brito, E. S., Pérez-Jiménez, J., Saura-Calixto, F., Mancini-Filho, J. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacities of 18 non-traditional tropical fruits from Brazil. Food Chemistry, 2010, 121, 996–1002.
21. Kim Dae-Ok , Lee C Y, Comprehensive Study on Vitamin C Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (VCEAC) of Various Polyphenolics in Scavenging a Free Radical and its Structural Relationship Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 2004, 44; 4,253-273
22. Yuan X, Gao M, Xiao H, Tan C, Du Y. Free radical scavenging activities and bioactive substances of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) leaves. Food Chem. 2011; 133:10–14.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).