Prunus armeniaca (apricot) and Mucuna pruriens (Konch) seeds improves the liver damage in albino rat exposed to nicotine
Prunus armeniaca (apricot) and Mucuna pruriens (Konch) both are the plant, which are extensively used as medicine in Indian traditional system from ancients, they are considered to increase the protective mechanism against ailments. Nicotine is the main copious components in smoking of cigarette and it is primarily metabolized inside the liver. The current study was performed to explore the role of ethanolic extract of Prunus armeniaca and Mucuna pruriens seed on nicotine induced lethality in rats. Animals are divided in to seven group of with each group (n=6) number of rats. Wistar rats (Group II, III, IV, VI and VIII) were administered with oral nicotine diluted with drinking water for 32 days, While (Group I) plain control was treated with drinking water concurrently, following 32 days Group III, IV were administered with two different concentration of ethanolic extract of Prunus armeniaca seed (200 mg/kg , 400 mg/kg) and Group V and VI received ethanoilc extract of Mucuna pruriens seed at different doses (400 mg/kg, 800 mg/kg). Group II served as toxicity group (5mg/kg body weight of nicotine). Rats were sacrificed 24 hrs after last day of administration (40th day), the biochemical and histopathological parameter were studies. A significance increase in the activity of SGOT, SGPT, CRT, Total bile acid, LDL, ALP, TC, TG, TBL, DBL and decreased the activity of Albumin, TP and HDL in nicotine control group was observed. Group IV and Group VI, the ethanolic extract of Prunus armeniaca seed (400 mg/kg) and ethanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens seed (800 mg/kg) make the defensive effects which were found more considerable in rats. Thus the consequence was recommended that the Prunus armeniaca and Mucuna pruriens both were exert the protecting effects during nicotine induced hepatoxicity in rats.
Keywords Prunus armeniaca, Mucuna pruriens, nicotine, hepatotoxicity.
2. Ragavan B, Krishnakumari S. Effect of T.arjuna stem bark on histopathology of liver, kidney and pancreas of Alloxan-induced diabetic Rats. Afr J Biomedical Res. 2006; 9(3):189-197.
3. Lu S. Regulation of hepatic glutathione synthesis: current concepts and controversies. FASEB Journal.1999; 13(10):1169-1183.
4. Aljohani ZM, Alharbi AA, Alsaedi MF, Alahmadi AF, Alahmadi OA, Alharbi AA, ABO-Haded HM. Evaluation of the potential beneficial effects of Thymoquinone against Nicotine induced Toxicity. IJPCR. 2015; 7(6):395-398.
5. Yurt B,Celik I. Hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant role of sun sulphited –dried apricot (Prunus aremniaca L.) and its kernel against ethanol induced oxidative stress in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011; 49(2):508-513.
6. Yigit D, Yigit N, Mavi A. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of bitter and sweet apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) kernels. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2009; 42(4): 346-352.
7. Sultana N, Azhar I. Anti-anxiety like effect of Mucuna pruriens Linn. Tested in Rodents. UJP.2013; 2(4):55-61.
8. Palanisamy P, Jayakar B, Kumuthvali MV, Kumar Y, Srinath KR. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation of whole plant extract of Dipteracanthus prostratus Nees. IRJP.2012; 3(1):150-153.
9. Sivaraman D, Muralidaran P, Shantha Kumar S. Evaluation of Anti-microbial and anti- inflammatory activity of methanol leaf extract of Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci. 2010; 1(2):258-264.
10. Vadivelu J, Dawood SS. Role of Emblica officinalis (Amla) on nicotine toxicity to rats (Rattus orvegaicus). Int. J. Pharm. boil.sci. arch. 2013; 4(4): 775-780.
11. Helen A, Krishnakumar K, Vijayammal PL, Augusti KT. Antioxidant effect of onion oil (Ailum cepa. Linn) on the damages induced by nicotine in rats as compared to alpha-tocopherol. Toxicol Lett. 2000; 116 (1-2):61-68.
12. Gumusteklin K, Ciftci M, Coban A, Altikat S, Aktas O, Gul M, Timur H, Dane S. Effect of nicotine and vitamin E on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in some rat tissues in vivo and in vitro. J. Enzyme Inhib. Med. Chem. 2005. 20 (5):497-502.
13. Yildiz D, Liu YS, Ercal N, Armstrong DW. Comparision of pure nicotine and smokeless tobacco extract induced oxidative stress. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1999; 37(4):434-439.
14. Moral DW, Hessler JR, Chisolm GM. Low density lipoprotein cytotoxicity induced by free radical peroxidation of lipid. J Lipid Res. 1963; 24(8):1070-1076.
15. Salahshoor M, Mohamadian S, Kakabarae I, Roshan Khan S, Jalili C. Curcumin improves liver damage in mice exposed to nicotine. J Tradit Complement Med. 2016; 6:176-183.
16. Park EM, Park YM, Gwak YS. Oxidative damage in tissues of rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Free Radic Biol Med.1998; 25(1): 79-86.
17. Brunzell JD, Miller NE, Alaupovic P, St.Hilaire RJ, Wang CS. Famlial chylomicronemia due to circulation inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase activity. J Lipid Res. 1983; 24(1):9-12.
18. EI-Sayed B, Eslam A. Effect of Aqeous Extract of Green Tea (Camellia sinesis L.) on obesity and Liver status in Experimental rats. IJPAS. 2014; 21(2):53-63.
19. Cryer PE. Diseases of the adrenal medulla and sympathetic nervous system. In endocrinology and metabolism. Mc graw –hill New York. 1981; 1:511-550.
20. Scartezzini P, Antognoni F, Raggi MA, Poli F, Sabbiani C. Vitamin C content and antioxidant activity of the fruit and of the Ayurvedic preprations of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. J Ethanopharmacol.2006; 104(1-2):113-118.
21. Erdogan IO, Kartal M. Insights into research on phytochemistry and biological activites of Prunus armeniaca L. apricot). Food Res Int. 2011; 44:1238- 1243.
22. Manalisha D, Chandra KJ. Preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute oral toxicity study of Mucuna pruriens Linn. In albino mice. IRJP. 2012; 3(2):181-183.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).