Potential benefits of phytochemicals for treatment of hyperpigmentation

  • Harsimran Kaur Delhi Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research University, New Delhi, India
  • , Afsana Delhi Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research University, New Delhi, India
  • Geeta Aggarwal Department of Pharmaceutics, Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, New Delhi
  • Manju Nagpal Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Patiala, Punjab, India

Abstract

UV radiation (UV) is considered as a complete carcinogen as it is both a mutagen and a non-specific damaging agent. It is the most important risk factor for skin cancer and many other skin disorders like Hyperpigmentation. There is a need of long-term topical skin care treatments (both cosmetic and cosmeceutical) to address problems associated with hyperpigmentation. Synthetic depigmenting agents, such as hydroquinone, mequinol, although highly effective, can raise several safety concerns (for example, ochronosis, cataract, impaired wound healing, desquamation, and other local or systemic side effects) with long-term exposure. The benefits of phytochemicals and natural extracts offer opportunities to develop new formulations to treat pigmentation problems. Cosmeceuticals are topical cosmetic-pharmaceutical preparations containing active ingredients which improve the appearance of skin. Among cosmeceuticals, the phytochemicals have been known to have a multitude of cellular actions for various dermatological diseases. Plant-derived compounds and their effectiveness in the treatment of hyperpigmentation disorders (Melasma) are discussed.


Keywords: UV radiation, Hyperpigmentation, Phytochemicals, Cosmeceuticals

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Harsimran Kaur, Delhi Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research University, New Delhi, India

Delhi Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research University, New Delhi, India

, Afsana, Delhi Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research University, New Delhi, India

Delhi Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research University, New Delhi, India

Geeta Aggarwal, Department of Pharmaceutics, Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, New Delhi
Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmaceutics, Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, New Delhi
Manju Nagpal, Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Patiala, Punjab, India

Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Patiala, Punjab, India

References

1. Ali SA, Choudhary RK, Naaz I, et al. Understanding the Challenges of Melanogenesis: Key Role of Bioactive Compounds in the Treatment of Hyperpigmentary Disorders. Pigmentary Disorders 2015; 2:223
2. Ali SA, Galgut JM, Choudhary RK. On the novel action of melanolysis by a leaf extract of Aloe vera and its active ingredient aloin, potent skin depigmenting agents. Planta Med 2012; 78:767-771
3. Altaei T. The treatment of melasma by silymarin cream. BMC Dermatol 2012; 12:18.
4. Amer M, Metwalli M. Topical liquiritin improves melasma. Int J Dermatol 2000; 39:299-301.
5. Andreassi L, Flori ML, Rubegni P. Sun and skin- Role of phototype and skin colour. Rheumaderm 1999; 455:469-475.
6. Antonio JR, Antonio CR, Cardeal ILS, et al. Nanotechnology in dermatology. An Bras Dermatol 2014; 89(1):126-36.
7. Ashley K Clark, Raja K Sivamani. Phytochemicals in the treatment of hyperpigmentation Botanics: Targets and Therapy 2016; 689-96.
8. Boissy RE, Visscher M, DeLong MA. DeoxyArbutin: a novel reversible tyrosinase inhibitor with effective in vivo skin lightening potency. Exp Dermatol 2005; 14(8):601-608
9. Chakraborty AK, Funasaka Y, Komoto M, Ichihashi M. Effect of arbutin on melanogenic proteins in human melanocytes. Pigment Cell Res 1998; 11:206-12.
10. Chen J, Yu X, Huang Y. Inhibitory mechanisms of glabridin on tyrosinase. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 2016; 168,111-117.
11. Cho YH, Kim JH, Park SM, et al. New cosmetic agents for skin whitening from Angelica dahurica. J Cosmet Sci. 2006; 57:11-21.
12. Choi S, Lee SK, Kim JE, et al. Aloesin inhibits hyperpigmentation induced by UV radiation. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2002; 27(6):513–515
13. Choo SJ, Ryoo IJ, Kim YH, et al. Silymarin inhibits melanin synthesis in melanocyte cells. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2009; 61:663‐667.
14. Couteau C, Chauvet C, Paparis E, et al. Influence of certain ingredients on the SPF determined in vivo. Arch. Dermatol. Res. 2012; 304:817-821.
15. Denton CR, Lerner AB, Fitzpatrick TB. Inhibition of melanin formation by chemical agents. J Invest Dermatol 1952; 18:119-135.
16. Draelos ZD. Skin lightening preparations and the hydroquinone controversy. Dermatol Ther. 2007; 20(5):308-313.
17. Ebanks JP, Wickett RR, Biossy RE. Mechanisms Regulating Skin Pigmentation: The Rise and Fall of Complexion Coloration. Int J Mol Sci 2009; 10:4066-4087.
18. Elmets CA. Cutaneous photoprotection from ultraviolet injury by green tea polyphenols. J Am Acad Dermatol 2001; 44(3):425-432.
19. Ertam I, Mutlu B, Unal I, Alper S, Kivcak B, Ozer O. Efficiency of ellagic acid and arbutin in melasma: A randomized, prospective, open label study. J of Dermatology 2008; 35(9):570-574.
20. Farris P. Idebenone, green tea, and coffeeberry® extract: new and innovative antioxidants novel antioxidants. Dermatol Ther 2007; 20(5):322-329.
21. Findlay GH. Ochronosis following skin bleaching with hydroquinone. J Am Acad Dermatol 1982; 6:1092-1093.
22. Fu B, Li H, Wang X, et al. Isolation and identification of flavonoids in licorice and a study of their inhibitory effects on tyrosinase. J Agric Food Chem 2005; 53:7408-7414.
23. Ghanbarzadeh S, Hariri R, Kouhsoltani M, et al. Enhanced stability and dermal delivery of hydroquinone using solid lipid nanoparticles. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 2015; 136:1004-1010.
24. Gillbro JM, Olsson MJ. The melanogenesis and mechanisms of skin-lightening agents--existing and new approaches. Int J Cosmet Sci 2011; 33:210-221.
25. Goldberg DJ, Berlin AL, Phelps R. Histologic and ultrastructural analysis of melasma after fractional resurfacing. Lasers Surg Med 2008; 40(2):134-138.
26. Hakozaki T, Minwalla L, Zhuang J, et al. The effect of niacinamide on reducing cutaneous pigmentation and suppression of melanosome transfer. Br J Dermatol 2002; 147:20-31.
27. Handog EB, Galang DA, de Leon-Godinez MA, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral procyanidin with vitamins A, C, E for melasma among Filipino women. Int J Dermatol 2009; 48(8):896-901.
28. Huang YB, Lee KF, Huang CT, et al. The effect of component of cream for topical delivery of hesperetin. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2010; 58(5):611-614.
29. Нong HY, Jee SH, Sun CC, et al. The patterns of melanosome distribution in keratinocytes of human skin as one determining factor of skin colour. Br J Dermatol 2003; 149:498-505.
30. Jarratt M. Mequinol 2%/tretinoin 0.01% solution: An effective and safe alternative to hydroquinone 3% in the treatment of solar lentigines. Cutis 2004; 74:319-22.
31. Jimbow K, Obata H, Pathak MA, et al. Mechanism of depigmentation by hydroquinone. J Invest Dermatol 1974; 62:436-49.
32. Jones K, Hughes J, Hong M, et al. Modulation of melanogenesis by aloesin: a competitive inhibitor of tyrosinase. Pigment Cell Res 2002; 15:335-340.
33. Kanlayavattanakul M and Lourith N. Skin hyperpigmentation treatment using herbs: A review of clinical evidences, J Cosmetic and Laser Therapy 2018;20(2):123-131.
34. Kasai K, Yoshimura M, Koga T, et al. Effects of oral administration of ellagic acid-rich pomegranate extract on ultraviolet induced pigmentation in the human skin. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2006; 52(5):383-388.
35. Katiyar SK. Green tea and skin. Arch Dermatol 2000; 136(8):989-994.
36. Kim S, Lee J, Jung E, et al. Mechanisms of depigmentation by a-bisabolol. J Dermatol Sci 2008; 52:219-222.
37. Kren V, Walterová D. Silybin and silymarin -new effects and applications. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub 2005; 49:29‐41.
38. Lall N, Kishore N. Are plants used for skin care in South Africa fully explored? J Ethnopharmacol 2014; 153: 61-84.
39. Lee J, Jun H, Jung E, et al. Whitening effect of alpha-bisabolol in Asian women subjects. Int J Cosmet Sci 2010; 32(4):299-303.
40. Lee SH, Choi SY, Kim H, et al. Mulberroside F isolated from the leaves of Morus alba inhibits melanin biosynthesis. Biol Pharm Bull 2002; 25:1045-1048.
41. Leyden J and Wallo W. The mechanism of action and clinical benefits of soy for the treatment of hyperpigmentation. Int. J. Dermat 2011; 50:470-477.
42. Lim JT, Tham SN. Glycolic acid peels in the treatment of melasma among Asian women. Dermatol Surg 1997;23:177-179.
43. Lin JY, Fisher DE. Melanocyte biology and skin Nature pigmentation 2007; 445:843-850.
44. Lu H, Edwards C, Gaskell, S, et al. Melanin content and distribution in the surface corneocyte with skin phototypes. Br. J. Dermatol 1996; 135:263-267.
45. Maeda K, Fukuda M. Arbutin: mechanism of its depigmenting action in human melanocyte culture. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1996; 276:765-769.
46. Mapunya MB, Hussein AA, Rodriguez B, et al. Tyrosinase activity of Greyia flanaganii (Bolus) constituents. Phytomedicine 2011; 18:1006-1012.
47. Sheth VM, Pandya AG. Melasma: a comprehensive update: part II. J Am Acad Dermatol 2011; 65(4):699-714.
48. Minwalla L, Zhao Y, Cornelius J, et al. Inhibition of melanosome transfer from melanocytes to keratinocytes by lectins and neoglycoproteins in an in vitro model system. Pigment Cell Res 2001; 14:185-194.
49. Nerya O, Vaya J, Musa R, et al. Glabrene and isoliquiritigenin as tyrosinase inhibitors from licorice roots. J Agric Food Chem 2003; 51:1201-1207.
50. No JK, Soung DY, Kim YJ, et al. Inhibition of tyrosinase by green tea components. Life Sci 1999; 65: PL241-246.
51. Nordlund JJ, Grimes PE, Ortonne JP. The safety of hydroquinone. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2006; 20:781-787.
52. Orazio JD, Jarett S, Ortiz AA, et al. UV Radiation and the skin. Int J Mol Sci 2013; 14(6): 12222-122248.
53. Picardo M, Carrera M. New and experimental treatments of cloasma and other hypermelanoses. Dermatol Clin 2007; 25: 353-362.
54. Proteggente AR, Basu-Modak S, Kuhnle G, et al. Hesperetin glucuronide, a photoprotective agent arising from flavonoid metabolism in human skin fibroblasts. Photochem Photobiol 2003; 78(3):256-261.
55. Ribeiro AS, Estanqueiro, Oliveira MB, et al. Main Benefits and Applicability of Plant Extracts in Skin Care Products. Cosmetics 2015; 2:48-65.
56. Sarkar R, Arora P, Garg KV. Cosmeceuticals for Hyperpigmentation: What is Available? J Cutan Aesthet Surg 2013; 6(1):4-11.
57. Sarkar RK, Goldberg DJ, Berlin AL, et al. Histologic and ultrastructural analysis of melasma after fractional resurfacing. Lasers Surg Med 2008; 40(2):134.
58. Shimogaki H, Tanaka Y, Tamai H, et al. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of ellagic acid on melanogenesis inhibition. Int J Cosmet Sci 2000; 22(4):291-303.
59. Slominski A, Wortsman J, Luger T, et al. Corticotropin releasing hormone and proopiomelanocortin involvement in the cutaneous response to stress. Physiol. Rev 2000a; 80:979-1020.
60. Slominski A, Wortsman J. Neuroendocrinology of the skin. Endocr. Rev 2000b; 21:457-487.
61. Stratigos AJ, Katsambas AD. Optimal management of recalcitrant disorders of hyperpigmentation in dark-skinned patients. Am J Clin Dermatol 2004; 5(3):161-168.
62. Tan C, Zhu W, Lu Y. Aloin, cinnamic acid and sophorcarpidine are potent inhibitors of tyrosinase. Chin Med J (Engl) 2002; 115:1859-1862
63. Tanweer Syed, Raza Aly, Seyed Ali Ahmad, et al. Management of melasma with 2% analogue of green tea extract in a hydrophilic cream: a placebo-controlled, double-blind study. J Am Acad Dermatol 2009; 60(3) Suppl 1: AB160
64. Tokton N, Ounaroon A, Panichayupakaranant P, et al. Development of ellagic acid rich pomegranate peel extract loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCS). Int J Pharm Sci 2014; 6(4):259-265.
65. Tse TW. Hydroquinone for skin lightening: Safety profile, duration of use and when should we stop? J Dermatolog Treat 2010; 21:272-5.
66. Usach I, Talens-Visconti R, Magraner-Pardo L, et al. Hesperetin induces melanin production in adult human epidermal melanocytes. Food Chem Toxicol 2015; 80:80–84.
67. Wang Z, Yang Z, He X, et al. Effects of aloesin on melanogenesis in pigmented skin equivalents. International Journal of Cosmetic Science 2008; 30:121-130
68. Woolery LH, Kammer JN. Treatment of hyperpigmentation. Semin Cutan Med Surg 2011; 30(3) :171-175.
69. Yamaguchi Y, Brenner M, Hearing VJ. The Regulation of Skin Pigmentation Minireviews. J. Biol. Chem 2007; 282:27557-27561.
70. Yokota T, Nishio H, Kubota Y, et al. The inhibitory effect of glabridin from licorice extracts on melanogenesis and inflammation. Pigment Cell Res 1998; 11:355-361.
71. Yoshimura M, Watanabe Y, Kasai K, et al. Inhibitory effect of an ellagic acid-rich pomegranate extract on tyrosinase activity and ultraviolet-induced pigmentation. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005; 69:2368-2373
72. Young Kang H, Ortonne JP Melasma update. Actas Dermosifiliogr 100 2009; Suppl 2:110-113.
73. Yue-Rong Liang, Suyoung Kang, Li Deng, et al. Inhibitory Effects of (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate on Melanogenesis in Ultraviolet A-Induced B16 Murine Melanoma Cell. Tropical J Pharm Research 2014; 13(11):1825-1831.
74. Zhang RZ, Zhu WY, Xie F Effect of hesperidin on B16 and HaCaT cell lines irradiated by Narrowband-UVB light. J Clin Dermatol 2008
75. Zhu W, Gao J. The use of botanical extracts as topical skin-lightening agents for the improvement of skin pigmentation disorders. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc 2008; 13(1):20–24.
76. Zubair S, Mujtaba G. Comparison of efficacy of topical 2% liquiritin, topical 4% liquiritin and topical 4% hydroquinone in the management of melasma. JPAD 2009; 19:158-163.
77. Jones K, Hughes J, Hong M, et al. Modulation of melanogenesis by aloesin: a competitive inhibitor of tyrosinase. Pigment Cell Res 2002; 15(5):335-340.
Statistics
215 Views | 256 Downloads
How to Cite
Kaur, H., Afsana, , Aggarwal, G., & Nagpal, M. (2019). Potential benefits of phytochemicals for treatment of hyperpigmentation. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 9(2), 420-427. https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v9i2.2453