Anxiolytic Potency of Cardamonin Mediated through Brain GABAergic System
Anxiety is an ailment causing personal, social and economic burden. Some drugs are available to provide symptomatic assistance for the treatment of anxiety and attempts are being made to find new therapeutic entities and subside associated adverse effects. Approaching natural sources, the current study aims to investigate the anxiolytic effects of cardamonin and its effect on the brain GABAergic system. The anxiolytic effects of various dose of cardamonin were investigated using the elevated plus maze apparatus and possible motor disabilities were evaluated trough open field test. Possible impact on GABAergic system was investigated using the ELISA. Fourteen days treatment with cardamonin (5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice significantly (p < 0.0001) increased and the percentages of open arm entry and open arm time compared to respective vehicle control group. Cardamonin show no influence on gross locomotor movement in open field test. Treatment with cardamonin significantly (p < 0.0001) increased levels of GABA in brain of treated mice compared to control mice. This study provided evidence on the anxiolytic potency of the cardamonin and revealed its action mechanism of regulating the GABA level in mouse brain.
2. Seligman MEP, Walker EF, Rosenhan DL. Abnormal Psychology. Fourth ed. New York: W.W. Norton and Company; 2000. P 183-185.
3. Mesfin M, Asres K, Shibeshi W, Evaluation of anxiolytic activity of the essential oil of the aerial part of Foeniculum vulgareMiller in mice, BMC Complement Altern Med, 2014; 14(1):310-312.
4. Siddiq A, Younus I, The Radish, Raphanus sativus L. Var. caudatus reduces anxiety-like behavior in mice, Metabolic Brain Disease, 2018; 33:1255–1260.
5. Bheemasankara RC, Namosiva RT, Suryaprakasam, S, Cardamonin and alpinetin from the seeds of Amomum subulatum, Planta Medica 1976; 29(1):391–392.
6. Ping CP, Mohamad TAST, Akhtar MA et al., Antinociceptive effects of cardamonin in mice: possible involvement of TRPV1, glutamate, and opioid receptors, Molecules 2018; 23(1):2237-2239.
7. Peng S, Hou Y, Yao J, Fang J, Activation of Nrf2-driven antioxidant enzymes 1 by cardamonin confers neuroprotection of PC12 cells against oxidative damage, Food Funct, 2017; 228(3):997-1007.
8. Sambasevam Y, Farouk AAO, Mohamad TAST et al., Cardamonin attenuates hyperalgesia and allodynia in a mouse model of chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain: Possible involvement of the opioid system, Eur J Pharmacol, 2017; 5(796):32-38.
9. Sidor MM, Rilett K, Foster JA, Validation of an automated system for measuring anxiety-related behaviours in the elevated plus maze. J Neurosci Methods, 2010; 188(1):7-13.
10. Bhutada P, Mundhada Y, Bansod K et al., Protection of cholinergic and antioxidant system contributes to the effect of berberine ameliorating memory dysfunction in rat model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes, Behav Brain Res, 2011; 220(1):30e41.
11. Macdonald RL, Bianchi MT. Encyclopedia of the neurological sciences: gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). First ed. New York: Elsevier Science; 2003. P. 204-209.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).