Morphoanatomical and physicochemical studies on Ailanthus excelsa roxb. stem bark: a tree of heaven
Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (Simaroubaceae) is a traditional medicinal plant used widely in India and China in various health conditions. The morphology and microscopical evaluation are most preferred quality control parameter, in order to establish its quality and purity, we report some important pharmacognostic profile of A. excelsa stem-bark for the purpose of its identification and differentiation from related species. The study of the fresh, powdered and anatomical sections of the stem bark were carried out to determine the morphological, microscopical, some physicochemical and phytochemical parameters. Presence of lignified multicellular trichrome, stone cells, scleroids, lignified pericyclic fibre, phloem fibre, prismatic calcium oxalate, starch grains and uni to multiserrate non-lignified medullary rays observed as distinguishing microscopical characteristics in transverse section and powder studies. The result of preliminary phytochemical screening indicated presence of alkaloids, glycoside, steroids, carbohydrates, proteins, phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids and saponins. In addition, quantitative phytochemical analysis revealed significant amount of total phenolic and flavonoid content. The present study will be useful for its identification prior to carrying out further research work.
Keywords: Ailanthus excelsa; stem-bark; pharmacognostic; quantitative phytochemical analysis.
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