Prospects of Traditionally important Apocynaceae plants of India in Cancer Remediation

  • Nirmala Devi Assistant professor, Institute of Pharmacy, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi (UP), INDIA
  • Ajay Kumar Gupta Associate Professor, University Institute of Pharmacy, Chhatrapati Sahuji Maharaj University, Kanpur (UP), INDIA
  • Sunil K. Prajapati Professor and Head, Pharmaceutical sciences, Institute of Pharmacy, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi (UP), INDIA


Objectives: Apocynaceae Family plants in India had wide array of traditional uses and practised since years ago. This review aims to report selected plants of this possessing anticancer activity. Selected literature compiled from the search of electronic journals, books and encyclopedias etc. using search engines viz. Google, PubMed, Sciencedirect, GoogleScholar and SciFinder for all periods. The Dogbane family is includes atleast 150 genera and 1700 species. Around 25 genera and 50 species of the family reviewed here possess anticancer activity. The reason for this potential is due to: a) phytoconstituents b) poisonous constituents c) antimalarial activity and d) abundance of literature in traditional medicinal use.  Folk medicinal uses and reported anticancer potential suggests that the Apocynaceae plants can be formulated or developed into lead compounds or novel drugs or multidrug complex for treatment of cancer. Detailed screening of each species has to be performed in 64 pannel cell lines, mechanistic study performed clearly and effectiveness of extracts, fractions or pure isolated compounds is to be compared.

Keywords:  Apocynaceae; Traditional Medicines; cancer; anticancer plants.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Nirmala Devi, Assistant professor, Institute of Pharmacy, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi (UP), INDIA

Assistant professor, Institute of Pharmacy, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi (UP), INDIA

Ajay Kumar Gupta, Associate Professor, University Institute of Pharmacy, Chhatrapati Sahuji Maharaj University, Kanpur (UP), INDIA

Associate Professor, University Institute of Pharmacy, Chhatrapati Sahuji Maharaj University, Kanpur (UP), INDIA

Sunil K. Prajapati, Professor and Head, Pharmaceutical sciences, Institute of Pharmacy, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi (UP), INDIA

Professor and Head, Pharmaceutical sciences, Institute of Pharmacy, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi (UP), INDIA


1. Mallath MK et. al.; The growing burden of cancer in India: epidemiology and social context. THE LANCET Oncology. 2014, 15(6):e205–e212.
2. World Health Organisation. The World Health Organisation’s Fight against Cancer: Strategies that prevent, cure and care. WHO Press; Geneva: 2007.
3. Gibbs J.B., Anticancer drug targets: growth factors and growth factor signaling, J. Clin Invest, 2000; 105:9-13.
4. Pratheeshkumar P, Sreekala C, Zhang Z. et al. Cancer prevention with promising natural products: mechanisms of action and molecular targets. Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2012; 12:1159-1184.
5. Greenwell M, Rahman P.K.S.M.. Medicinal Plants: Their Use in Anticancer Treatment. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2015 Oct 1; 6(10):4103–4112.
6. Solowey E, Lichtenstein M, Sallon S, Paavilainen H, Elaine Solowey, and Haya Lorberboum-Galski. Evaluating Medicinal Plants for Anticancer Activity. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. Scientific World Journal Volume 2014.
7. Cragg GM, Newman DJ. Plants as a source of anti-cancer agents. Journal of Enthnopharmacology. 2005; 100:72–79
8. Endress ME, Bruyns PV. A revised classification of the Apocynaceae. Bot Rev. 2000; 66:1–56.
9. Marcy J. Balunas, A. Douglas Kinghorn. Drug discovery from medicinal plants. Life sciences; 2005; 78(5):431-441.
10. Devi N, Gupta AK, Prajapati SK. Indian tribe’s and villager’s health and habits: Popularity of apocynaceae plants as medicine. International Journal of Green Pharmacy (IJGP). 2017; (Suppl)11(2):S256.
11. Norman R. Farnsworth, Cynthia J. Kaas. An approach utilizing information from traditional medicine to identify tumor-inhibiting plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1981, 3(1):85-99.
12. Gordaliza M. Natural products as leads to anticancer drugs. Clinical and Translational Oncology. 2007; 9(12):767–776.
13. Jain R, Jain SK. Screening of in vitro cytotoxic activity of some medicinal plants used traditionally to treat cancer in Chhattisgarh state, India. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2011; 1(2) Supplement:S147-S150.
14. Suffredini IB, Varella D, de Oliviera AA, Younes RN. In vitro anti-HIV and antitumor evaluation of Amazonian plants belonging to the Apocynaceae family. Phytomedicine. 2002; 9(2):175.
15. Siu Kuin Wong, Yau Yan Lim, Noor Rain Abdullah, Fariza Juliana Nordin. Antiproliferative and phytochemical analyses of leaf extracts of ten Apocynaceae species. Pharmacognosy Res. 2011; 3(2):100–106.
16. Shiyuan Wen, Yanyan Chen, Yunfang Lu, Yuefei Wang, Liqin Ding, Miaomiao Jiang. Cardenolides from the Apocynaceae family and their anticancer activity. Fitoterapia. 2016; 112:74-84.
17. Ghisalberti, E.L. Biological and pharmacological activity of naturally occurring iridoids and secoiridoids. Phytomed.1998, 5:147-163.
18. Dina F. El-Kashef, Ashraf N. E. Hamed, Hany E. Khalil, Mohamed S. Kamel. Triterpenes and sterols of family Apocynaceae (2013-1955), A review. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2015; 4(2):21-39
19. Gupta AP, Pandotra P, Kushwaha M, Khan S, Sharma R, Gupta S. Chapter 9 - Alkaloids: A Source of Anticancer Agents from Nature. Studies in Natural Products Chemistry. 2015, 46:341-445.
20. Raffauf RF, Flagler MB. Alkaloids of the Apocynaceae 1960; 14:37-55
21. Jin-Jian Lu, Jiao-Lin Bao, Xiu-Ping Chen, Min Huang, Yi-Tao Wang. (2012) Alkaloids Isolated from Natural Herbs as the Anticancer Agents. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012, 1-12.
22. Naira Fernanda Zanchett Schneider 1, Claudia Cerella 2, 3, Cláudia Maria Oliveira Simões 1 and Marc Diederich. Anticancer and Immunogenic Properties of Cardiac Glycosides. Molecules 2017, 22(11):1932.
23. Robert Duffy, Christine Wade, Raymond Chang. Discovery of anticancer drugs from antimalarial natural products: a MEDLINE literature review. Drug Discovery Today. 2012, (17–18):942–953.
24. Kundu CN, Das S, Nayak A, Satapathy SR, Das D, Siddharth S. Anti-malarials are anti-cancers and vice versa - one arrow two sparrows. Acta Trop. 2015; 149:113-27.
25. Wong SK, Yan Lim Y, Abdullah NR, Nordin FJ. Assessment of antiproliferative and antiplasmodial activities of five selected Apocynaceae species. BMCComplementary and Alternative Medicine. The official journal of the International Society for Complementary Medicine Research (ISCMR), 2011; 11:3.
26. Kupchan S.M., Dessertine A.L., Blaylock B.T., Bruan R.F., 1974. Isolation and structural elucidation of allamandin, an antileukemic iridóide lactone from Allamanda cathartica. J. Org. Chem. 1974; 39(21):2477-2484.
27. de F Navarro Schmidt D, Yunes RA, Schaab EH, Malheiros A, Cechinel Filho V, Franchi GC Jr, Nowill AE, Cardoso AA, Yunes J.Evaluations of the anti-proliferative effect the extracts of Allamanda blanchetti and A. schottii on the growth of leukemic and endothelial cells. J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci. 2006; 9(2):200-208.
28. Fabiana G. Nascimentoa ,Amanda Faquetia , Jessica F. Wilhelma , Carolina Wittkowskia , Folvi D. Tomczaka , Sheila L. Borgesa , Rosendo A. Yunesb , Gilberto C. Franchi Jr.c , Alexandre E. Nowillc . Seasonal influence and cytotoxicity of extracts, fractions and major compounds from Allamanda schottii. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia Rev. bras. farmacogn. 2014, 24(5).
29. Keawpradub N, Eno-Amooquaye E, Burke PJ, Houghton PJ. Cytotoxic activity of indole alkaloids from Alstonia macrophylla. Planta Med. 1999; 65:311–5
30. Jahan S, Chaudhary R, Goyal PK. Anticancer Activity of an Indian Medicinal Plant, Alstonia scholaris, on Skin Carcinogenesis in Mice. Integrative Cancer Therapies. 2009, 8(3):273-279.
31. Ganesh Chandra Jagetia, Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga. Treatment with Alstonia scholaris Enhances Radiosensitivity In vitro and in vivo. Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals. 2004: 917-929.
32. Baliga MS. Alstonia scholaris Linn R Br in the Treatment and Prevention of Cancer: Past, Present, and Future. Integrative Cancer Therapies. 2010, 9(3):261–269.
33. Keawpradub N., Houghton PJ, Eno-Amovquay E., Burke PJ Activity of extracts and alkaloids of Thai Alstonia species against human lung cancer cell lines. Planta Med. 1997; 63:97-101.
34. Jagetia GC, Baliga MS. Evaluation of anticancer activity of the alkaloid fraction of Alstonia scholaris (Sapthaparna) in vitro and in vivo. Phytother Res. 2006; 20:103–9
35. Kaneda N, Chai H, Pezzuto JM, AKinghorn AD, N. Farnsworth NR, Tuchinda P, Udchachon J, T. Santisuk , V. Reutrakul. Cytotoxic activity of cardenolides from Beaumontia brevituba stems. Planta Med. 1992.
36. Gupta P, Bhatnagar I, Se-Kwon Kim, Verma AK, Anubhuti Sharma. In-vitro cancer cell cytotoxicity and alpha amylase inhibition effect of seven tropical fruit residues. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2014; 4(2):S665–S671.
37. Bodakhe SH.; Devi N; Gupta S K.; Namdeo K.P.; Jain S. K. Hepatoprotective Activity of Carissa carandas Linn. fruit ethanolic extract in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats. Advances in Pharmacology & Toxicology. 2014; 15(3):51-58.
38. Begum S, Syed SA, Siddiqui BS, Sattar SA, M. Iqbal Choudhary. Carandinol: First isohopane triterpene from the leaves of Carissa carandas L. and its cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines. Phytochemistry Letters. 2013; 6(1):91-95.
39. Sahreen S, Khan MR, Khan RA, Shah NA. Estimation of flavoniods, antimicrobial, antitumor and anticancer activity of Carissa opaca fruits. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013; 27:13:372.
40. Nisa S, Bibi Y, Zia M, Waheed A, Chaudhary MF. Anticancer investigations on Carissa opaca and Toona ciliata extracts against human breast carcinoma cell line. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2013; 26(5):1009-12.
41. Eric Wei Chiang Chan, Siu Kuin Wong, Hung Tuck Chan, Shigeyuki Baba, and Mio Kezuka et al. Cerbera are coastal trees with promising anticancer properties but lethal toxicity: A short review. / J. Chin. Pharm. Sci. 2016; 25 (3):161–169.
42. Sarot Cheenpracha, Chatchanok Karalai, Yanisa Rat-a-pa, Chanita Ponglimanont, Kan Chantrapromma. New Cytotoxic Cardenolide Glycoside from the Seeds of Cerbera manghas Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. (Chem Pharm Bull). 2004; 52(8):1023-1025
43. Siti Syarifah MM, Nurhanan MY, Muhd Haffiz J, A Mohd Ilham, K Getha, O Asiah, I Norhayati, H Lili Sahira & S Anee S. Potential Anticancer compounds from Cerbera odollam. Journal of Tropical Forest Science. 2011; 23(1):89-96.
44. Chang LC, Gills JJ, Bhat KP, Luyengi L, Farnsworth NR, Pezzuto JM, Kinghorn AD. Activity-guided isolation of constituents of Cerbera manghas with antiproliferative and antiestrogenic activities. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2000; 10(21):2431–2434.
45. Mohd Mutalip syarifah Siti, Nurhanan Yunos, 3rd J. Muhd Haffiz et al. Potential anticancer compound from Cerbera odollam. Journal of Tropical Forest Science. 2011; 23(1):89-96 •
46. Shah VC, Adolf S. D'sa, Noel Souza. Chonemorphine, stigmasterol, and ecdysterone: Steroids isolated through bioassay-directed plant screening programs.Steroids. 1989; 53(3–5):559-565.
47. Kedari P, Malpathak N. Quantification of Camptothecin in Different Plant Parts of Chonemorpha Fragrans. Advances in Zoology and Botany. 2013; 1(2):34-38.
48. Kedari PP, Malpathak NP. Screening of Chonemorpha fragrans bioactive extracts for cytotoxicity potential and inhibition studies of key enzymes involved in replication. Pharmacog. Magazine. 2016; 12(46):S297-302.
49. Kedari, Pradnya Malpathak, Nutan P. Hairy root cultures of Chonemorpha fragrans (Moon) Alston. A potential plant for camptothecin production. IJBT, 2014; 13(2):231-235
50. Poornima K, Gopalakrishnan VK. Anticancer Activity of Tabernaemontana coronaria against Carcinogen Induced Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma. Chinese Journal of Biology.Volume 2014; 8.
51. Sarath P. Gunasekera, Geoffrey Cordell, Norman R. Farnsworth. Anticancer indole alkaloids of Ervatamia heyneana. Phytochemistry. 1980; 19(6):1980 1213-1218.
52. Akhila Sravya Dantu, Shankarguru P, Ramya Devi D, Vedha Hari BN. Evaluation of In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Tabernaemontana Divaricata. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2012; 5(3):59-61
53. Kirankumar Hullatti, Namrata Pathade, Yuvaraj Mandavkar, Ashok Godavarthi, and Mahesh Biradi. Bioactivity-guided isolation of cytotoxic constituents from three medicinal plants Pharm Biol, 2013; 51(5):601–606
54. Kumar A, Selvakumar S. Antiproliferative efficacy of Tabernaemontana divaricata against HEP2 cell line and Vero cell line. Pharmacogn Mag.; 2015; 11(Suppl 1):S46–S52.
55. Sim DS, Teoh WY, Sim KS, Lim SH, Thomas NF, Low YY, Kam TS. Vobatensines A-F, Cytotoxic Iboga-Vobasine Bisindoles from Tabernaemontana corymbosa. J Nat Prod. 2016; 2279(4):1048-55.
56. Pereira PS, França SC, Oliveira PVA, Breves CMS, Pereira SIV. Chemical constituents from Tabernaemontana catharinensis root bark: A brief NMR review of indole alkaloids and in vitro cytotoxicity. Química Nova 2008; 31(1):20-24.
57. Cheenpracha S, Boapun P, Thunwadee Limtharakul (née Ritthiwigrom), Surat Laphookhieo & Stephen G. Pyne. Antimalarial and cytotoxic activities of pregnene-type steroidal alkaloids from Holarrhena pubescens roots. (2017): DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2017.1408108.
58. Sharma V, Hussain S, Bakshi M, Bhat N, Saxena AK. In vitro cytotoxic activity of leaves extracts of Holarrhena antidysenterica against some human cancer cell lines. Indian J Biochem Biophys 2014; 51(1):46-51.
59. Badmus JA, Ekpo OE, Hussein AA, M Meyer, D C Hiss. Antiproliferative and Apoptosis Induction Potential of the Methanolic Leaf Extract of Holarrhena floribunda (G. Don). Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015, 11:756482.
60. Sharma V, Hussain S, Bakshi M, Bhat N, Saxena AK. In vitro cytotoxic activity of leaves extracts of Holarrhena antidysenterica against some human cancer cell lines. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2014; 51(1):46-51.
61. Singh NK, Singh VP. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of Ichnocarpus frutescens. Chin J Nat Med. 2012; 10(4):241-246.
62. Thangarajana S, Perumal S, Chinthamony AR, Ragavendran Paramasivam, VidyaBalasubramanian, Sunitha Martin, Velliyur Kanniappan Gopalakrishnan. Chemomodulatory effects of Ichnocarpus frutescens R. Br against 4-vinylcyclohexane induced ovarian cancer in swiss albino mice. Journal of Acute Disease. 2013; 2(2):151-155.
63. Kumarappan CT, Mandal SC. Antitumor activity of Polyphenolic extract of Ichnocarpus frutescense. Exp Oncol 2007; 29(2):94–101
64. Singh NK, Singh VP. Anticancer activity of the roots of Ichnocarpus frutescens R. Br. and isolated triterpenes. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2014; 27(1):187-91.
65. Chidambaram K, Subhash C Mandal. Antitumor activity of polyphenols extracts of Ichnocarpus frutescens. Experimental oncology. 2007; 29(2):94-101. 
66. Lee Yean Shan, Tee Chuan Thing, Tan Siow Ping, Khalijah Awang, Najihah MohdHashim, Mohd Azlan Nafiah, Kartini Ahmad. Cytotoxic, antibacterial and antioxidant activity of triterpenoids from Kopsia singapurensis Ridl. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research (JCPR), 2014; 6(5):815-822.
67. Lim KH, Hiraku O, Komiyama K, Koyano T, Hayashi M, Kam TS. Biologically active indole alkaloids from Kopsia arborea. J Nat Prod. 2007; 70(8):1302-7.
68. Subramaniam G, Hiraku O, Hayashi M, Koyano T, Komiyama K, Kam TS. Biologically active aspidofractinine alkaloids from Kopsia singapurensis. J Nat Prod. 2008, 71(1):53-7.
69.Lim SH, Sim KM, Abdullah Z, Hiraku O, Hayashi M, Komiyama K, Kam TS. Leuconoxine, kopsinitarine, kopsijasmine, and kopsinone derivatives from Kopsia. J Nat Prod. 2007 Aug; 70(8):1380-3.
70. Wahyuningsih MSH. Mubarika S., Mark T. Hamann Gandjar, IG, Wahyuono S., Structure identification of potential compound as selective renal anticancer isolated from Nerium Indicum Mill. Leaves, Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy, 2008; 19(2):57-64.
71. Siddiqui BS, Begum S, Siddiqui S, Lichter W. Two cytotoxic pentacyclic triterpenoids from Nerium oleander. Phytochemistry. 1995; 39:171–4.
72.Pathak S, Multani AS, Narayan S, Kumar V, Newman RA. Anvirzel™, an extract of Nerium oleander, induces cell death in human but not murine cancer cells. Anticancer Drugs. 2000; 11:455–63.
73. Heinz H. Fiebig, Gerhard Kelter, Armin Maier, Thomas Metz and Luay J. Rashan. Abstract 5572: Breastin a natural product from Nerium Oleander exhibits high activity in a panel of human tumor cell lines. A. Experimental and Molecular Therapeutics. 2013; 73(8 Supplement).
74.Turan N, Akgün-Dar K, Kuruca SE, Kiliçaslan-Ayna T, Seyhan VG, Atasever B, et al. Cytotoxic effects of leaf, stem and root extracts of Nerium oleander on leukemia cell lines and role of the p-glycoprotein in this effect. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2006; 6:31–8.
75. Siddiqui BS, Khatoon N, Begum S, Farooq AD, Kehkashan Qamar, Huma Aslam Bhatti, Syed Kashif Ali. Flavonoid and cardenolide glycosides and a pentacyclic triterpene from the leaves of Nerium oleander and evaluation of cytotoxicity. Phytochemistry. 2012; 77:238-244.
76. Rashan LJ, Franke K, Khine MM, Gerhard Kelter, Heinz H. Fiebig, Joachim Neumann, Ludger A. Wessjohann. Characterization of the anticancer properties of monoglycosidic cardenolides isolated from Nerium oleander and Streptocaulon tomentosum. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2011; 134:781-788.
77. Qamar KA, Farooq AD, Siddiqui BS, Kabir N, Khatoon N, Ahmed S, Erum S, Begum S. Antiproliferative Effects of Nerium oleander Stem and Mitotic Arrest Induced by Cardenolide Odoroside B on NCI-H460 Cancer Cells. Letters in Drug Design & Discovery. 2018; 15(1):84-94.
78. Su Jin Song, Cheng Yun Jin, Yung Hyun Choi and Won Deok Hwang. Induction of Apoptosis by Ethanol Extract of Nerium indicum Stem Is Associated with Activation of JNK in Human Renal Carcinoma Caki-1 Cells. Cancer prevention research 2011; 16:269-79.
79. Nagwa M. El Sawi, Neveen S. Geweely, Safaa Qusti, M. Mohamed, A. Kamel. Cytotoxicity and Antimicrobial Activity of Nerium oleander Extracts Journal of Applied Animal Research. 2010; 37:25-31.
80. Garbett NC, Graves DE. Extending nature's leads: the anticancer agent ellipticine. Curr Med Chem Anticancer Agents. 2004; 4(2):149-72.
81. Po-Lin Kuo, Ya-Ling Hsu, Cheng-Hsiung Chang, Chun-Ching Lin. The mechanism of ellipticine-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human breast MCF-7 cancer cells. Cancer Letters. 2005; 223:293–301.
82. Riham A. El-shiekh, Dalia A. Al-Mahdy, Mohamed S. Hifnawy, Tzvetomira Tzanova, Emilie Evain-Bana, Stéphanie Philippot, Denyse Bagrel, Essam A. Abdelsattar. Chemical and Biological Investigation of Ochrosia elliptica Labill. Cultivated in Egypt. Rec. Nat. Prod. 2017; 11(6):552-557
83. Periyasamy G; Gupta M; Mazumder UK; Gebrelibanos, Mebrahtom; Sintayehu, Biruk. Antioxidant and Antitumor Activity of Plumeria acuminata in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Bearing Swiss Albino Mice. British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research; 2013; 3(4):671-685.
84. Leonardus B. S. Kardono, Soefjan Tsauri, Kosasih Padmawinata, John M. Pezzuto, A. Douglas Kinghorn. Cytotoxic constituents of the bark of Plumeria rubra collected in Indonesia. J. Nat. Prod. 1990; 53(6):1447-1455.
85. Periyasamy G, Gupta M, Mazumder UK, Mebrahtom Gebrelibanos and Biruk Sintayehu. Antioxidant and Antitumor Activity of Plumeria acuminata in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Bearing Swiss Albino Mice. British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 3(4): 671-685.
86. Guevara AP1, Amor E, Russell G. Antimutagens from Plumeria acuminata Ait.; Mutat Res. 1996; 361(2-3):67-72.
87. Bemis DL, Capodice JL, Gorroochurn P, A.E. Katzand R. Buttyan. Anti-prostate cancer activity of a ß-carboline alkaloid enriched extract from Rauwolfia vomitoria. International Journal of Oncology. 2006, 29:1065-1073.
88. Jun Yu, Yan Ma, Jeanne Drisko, Qi Chen. Antitumor Activities of Rauwolfia vomitoria Extract and Potentiating of Carboplatin Effects against Ovarian Cancer. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 2013; 75:8–14.
89. Rong-Fu Chen, Fumiko Abe, Tatsuo Yamauchi, Masakatsu Taki. Cardenolide glycosides of Strophanthus divaricatus. Phytochemistry. 1987; 26(8):2351-2355.
90. Pezzani R, Rubin B, Redaelli M, Radu C, Barollo S, Maria Verena Cicala, Monica Salvà, Caterina Mian, Carla Mucignat-Caretta, Paolo Simioni, Maurizio Iacobone, Franco Mantero. The antiproliferative effects of ouabain and everolimus on adrenocortical tumor cells. Endocr J. 2014; 61(1):41-53.
91. Karkare S, Adou E, Cao S, Brodie P, James S. Miller, N. M. Andrianjafy, J. Razafitsalama, Rabodo Andriantsiferana, Vincent E. Rasamison, and David G. I. Kingston. Cytotoxic Cardenolide Glycosides of Roupellina (Strophanthus) boiviniifrom the Madagascar Rainforest. J. Nat. Prod.2007; 70(11):1766–1770
92. Tamiris Caroline Barbon, Cássio Prinholato da Silva, Suely Vilela Sampaio, Mateus Amaral Baldo. Evaluation of Anticancer Activity Promoted by Molecules Contained in the Extracts of Thevetia peruviana Toxicon. 2012; 60(2):179-180.
93. Huo-Yun Cheng, Dan-Mei Tian, Jin-Shan Tang, Wei-Zai Shen & Xin-Sheng Yao. Cardiac glycosides from the seeds of Thevetia peruviana and their pro-apoptotic activity toward cancer cells. Mar2016. Journal of Asian Natural Products Research. 2016, 18(9): 837-847.
94. Ramos-Silva A, Tavares-Carreón F, Figueroa M, Susana De la Torre-Zavala, Argel Gastelum-Arellanez, Aída Rodríguez-García, Luis J. Galán-Wong and Hamlet Avilés-Arnaut. Anticancer potential of Thevetia peruviana fruit methanolic extract. 2017 May 2. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017; 17:241.
95. Salama M, El-Hawary S, Mousa O, El-Askari N, Esmat A. In vivo TNF-α and IL-1β inhibitory activity of Phenolics isolated from Trachelospermum Jasminoids (Lindl.) Lem. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research.2010; 9 (2):30-41.
96. Xing-Qi Tan, Liang-Jun Guo, Yi-Hua Qiu, Hai-Sheng Chen & Chang-Heng Tan, Chemical constituents of Trachelospermum jasminoides. 11 Aug 2009. Natural Product Research Formerly Natural Product Letters. 2010; 24(13):1248-1252.
97. Fatima T, Ijaz S, Crank G, Wasti S.Indole Alkaloids from Trachelospermum jasminoides. Planta Med. 1987; 53(1):57-9.
98. Siu Kuin Wong, Eric Wei Chiang Chan. Botany, uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Vallaris: A short review. Pharmacognosy Journal; 2013; 5:242-246.
99. Wong SK, Lim YY, Ling SK, Chiang Chan EW. Antiproliferative activity of Vallaris glabra Kuntze (Apocynaceae). Phcog Mag, 2014; 10(38):232-239.
100. Kruakaew S, Seeka C, Thitima Lhinhatrakool, Sanit Thongnest, Jantana Yahuafai, Suratsawadee Piyaviriyakul, Pongpun Siripong, and Somyote Sutthivaiyakit. Cytotoxic Cardiac Glycoside Constituents of Vallaris glabra Leaves, J. Nat. Prod. 2017; 80(11):2987–2996
101. Karmakar UK, Ghosh D, Sadhu SS. Assessment of Analgesic, Cytotoxic and Antioxidant activities of Vallaris solanacea (Roth) Kuntze. Stamford. J. Pharm. Sci. 2010; 4(1):64-68.
102. Siddiqui MJ, Ismail Z, Aisha AF, Abdul Majid AM. Cytotoxic activity of Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae) crude extracts and pure compounds against human colorectal carcinoma cell line. Int J Pharmacol. 2010; 6:43–7.
103. Robert L. Noble. The discovery of the vinca alkaloids—chemotherapeutic agents against cancer Biochemistry and Cell Biology. 1990; 68(12):1344-1351
104. Maryam Moudi, Rusea Go, Christina Yong Seok Yien, and Mohd. Nazre. Vinca Alkaloids. Int J Prev Med. 2013; 4(11): 1231–1235
105. El-Sayed A, Handy GA, Cordell GA. Catharanthus alkaloids XXXVIII. Confirming structural evidence and antineoplastic activity of the bisindole alkaloids leurosine-N’b-oxide (pleurosine) roseadine and vindolicine from Catharanthus roseus. J Nat Prod 1983; 46:517-27.
106. Antony J, Saikia M, Vinod V, Nath LR, Katiki MR, Murty MS, Paul A, Shabna A, Chandran H, Joseph SM, Nishanth KS, Panakkal EJ, Sriramya I, Sridivya I, Ran S, Sankar S, Rajan E, Anto RJ. DW-F5: A novel formulation against malignant melanoma from Wrightia tinctoria. (Scientific reports)Sci Rep. 2015; 10(5):12662.
107. Selvam P, Murugesh M, Witvrouw M, Keyaerts E, J. Neyts. Studies of Antiviral Activity and Cytotoxicity of Wrightia tinctoria and Morinda citrifolia. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2009; 71(6):670–672.
108. Ramalakshmi S, Edaydulla N, Ramesh P, Muthuchelian K. Investigation on cytotoxic, antioxidant, antimicrobial and volatile profile of Wrightia tinctoria (Roxb.) R Br Flower used in Indian medicine. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2012; 68-75.
109. Chakravarti B, Maurya R, Siddiqui JA, Bid HK, Rajendran SM, Yadav PP, Konwar R. In vitro anti-breast cancer activity of ethanolic extract of Wrightia tomentosa: Role of pro-apoptotic effects of oleanolic acid and urosolic acid Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2012; 142(1):72–79.
110. Chaudhary S, Devkar RA, Bhere D, Setty MM, Ranganath Pai KS. Selective cytotoxicity and pro-apoptotic activity of stem bark of Wrightia tinctoria Roxb. Pharmacognosy Magazine. 2015, 11(44):481-487.
111. Fatima N, Ahmad MK, Ansari JA, Ali Z, Khan AR, Mahdi AA. Anticancer, antioxidant potential and profiling of polyphenolic compounds of Wrightia tinctoria Roxb. (R.Br.) bark. Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research. 2016; 7(4):159-165.
112. Chakravarti B, Maurya R, Siddiqui JA, Bid HK, Rajendran SM, Yadav PP, Konwar R. In vitro anti-breast cancer activity of ethanolic extract of Wrightia tomentosa: Role of pro-apoptotic effects of oleanolic acid and urosolic acid Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2012; 142(1):72–79.
113. Mariquit M De Los Reyes, Glenn G Oyong, Vincent Antonio S. Ng, Chien-Chang Shen, Consolacion Y Ragasa. Cytotoxic Compounds from Wrightia pubescens (R.Br.) Phcog Res. 2018; 10(1):9-15.
37 Views | 26 Downloads
How to Cite
Devi, N., Gupta, A. K., & Prajapati, S. K. (2019). Prospects of Traditionally important Apocynaceae plants of India in Cancer Remediation. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 9(1), 293-302.