Phytochemical screening and GC–MS analysis of bioactive compounds present in ethanolic leaves extract of Silybum marianum (L).
Objective: To investigate the phytochemicals and GC-MS analysis of ethanol extracts of Silybum marianum.
Methods: The air-dried leaves were powdered and subjected to selective sequential extraction using solvents of increasing polarity through percolation, ethanol to obtain an ethanolic extract. Then, each of the extracts was further subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Results: Qualitative determination of the different biologically active compounds from crude extracts of Silybum marianum using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed different types of high and low molecular weight chemical entities with varying amounts present in each of the extracts. These chemical compounds are considered biologically and pharmacologically important.
Conclusions: The study established the chemical composition and anticancer activity of the plant.
Keywords: Silybum marianum, Phytochemicals screening, GC–MS analysis, Bioactive compounds.
2. Atanasov AG, Waltenberger B, Pferschy-Wenzig EM, Linder T, Wawrosch C, Uhrin P. Discovery and resupply of pharmacologically active plant-derived natural products: a review. Biotechnol Adv. 2015; 3(8):1582-614.
3. Mohansundari C, Natarajan D, Srinivasan K, Umamaheswari S, Ramachandran A, Antibacterial properties of Passiflora foetida L.- a common exotic medicinal plant, African Journal Of Biotechnology. 2007; 6(23):2650-2653.
4. Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian Medicinal Plants. MS Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh D. 1935; 2: 1606-1607.
5. Chopra RN, Nayer SL, Chopra IC. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants, CSIR, V ed New Delhi. 1956; 12:157.
6. Rastogi RP, Mehrotra BN. Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow and National Institute of Science Communication, New Delhi, India. 1994; 1-5.
7. De-Fatima A, Modolo LV, Conegero LS, Pilli RA, Ferreira CV, Kohn LK, de- Carvalho JE. Lactones and their derivatives. biological activities, mechanisms of action and potential leads for drug design. Curr Med Chem. 2006; 13:3371-3384.
8. Shahidi F, McDonald J, Chandrasekara A, Zhong Y, Phytochemicals of foods, beverages and fruit vinegar: chemistry and health effects, Asia Pacific J Clin Nutr. 2008; 17:380-382.
9. Vasu K, Goud J, Suryam V, Singara A, Chary M. Biomolecular and phytochemical analyses of three aquatic angiosperms. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 2009; 3(8):418-21.
10. Prasain JK, Wang CC, Barnes S. Mass spectroscopic methods for the determination of flavonoids in biological samples. Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 2004; 37:1324–50.
11. Rajendra Yonzone, Lama D, Bhujel RB, Samuel Rai. Orchid species diversity of Darjeeling Himalaya of India. Int. J. of Pharm. & Life Scie. 2012; 3(3): 1533-1550.
12. Robertson DG. Metabonomics in toxicology: A review. Toxicol. Sci. 2005; 85:809-22.
13. Fernie AR, Trethewey RN, Krotzky AJ, Willmitzer L. Metabolite profiling: From diagnostics to systems biology. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2004; 5:763-9.
14. Kell DB, Brown M, Davey HM, Dunn WB, Spasic I, Oliver SG. Metabolic footprinting and systems biology: The medium is the message. Nat Rev Microbiol 2005; 3:557-65.
15. Corchete P. Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn: the Source of Silymarin. In: Bioactive Molecules and Medicinal Plants, Ramawat KG, Mérillon JM (eds.). 2008; 123-148.
16. Ladas EJ, Cheng B, Hughes D. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is associated with reductions in liver function tests (LFTs) in children undergoing therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Society of Integrative Oncology, Boston, Mass. 2006; 5(7):1000292.
17. Bhatia N, Zhao J, Wolf DM. Inhibition of human carcinoma cell growth and DNA synthesis by silibinin, an active constituent of milk thistle: comparison with silymarin. Cancer Lett. 1999; 147:77-84.
18. Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods. London: Chapman and Hall Ltd. 1973; 49-188.
19. Mariat George. Phytochemical and Antioxidant studies on the essential oil of the rhizome of Curcuma aeruginosa (Roxb). International Research Journal of Pharmacy. 2015; 6(8):573-579.
20. Ardalan Pasdaran, Arsalan Pasdaran, Nazim Mamedov. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of the Volatile Composition of the Flower and Fruit of Solanum sisymbriifolium (Litchi Tomato). Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 23:66-71.
21. Srinivasan K, Kumaravel S. Unraveling the potential phytochemical compounds of Gymnema Sylvestre through GC-ms study. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2015; 8(1):450-453.
22. Cheila DOS, Fabricio MC, Fabricio AO, Evandro P, Carmen BBF, Susana MWS, Maria, LS. Antimicrobial activity [2methacryloyloxy) ethyl] trimethyl ammonium chloride against Candida spp. 2012; 1-4.
23. Ramalingam Vidhya and Rajangam Udayakumar. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Analysis of Ethanolic Extracts of Aerva lanata (L.). International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review. 2015;7(4):192-203.
24. Yogeswari S, Ramalakshmi SN, Muthu JM. Identification and comparative studies of different volatile fractions from Monochaetia kansensis by GC-MS. Global Journal of Pharmacology. 2012; 6(2):65-71.
25. Hsouna AB, Trixie M, Mansour RB, Jarraya RM, Damak M, Jaoua S. Chemical composition, cytotoxicity effect and antimicrobial activity of Ceratonia siliqua essential oil with preservative effects against listeria inoculated in minced beef meat. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2011; 148(1):66-72.
26. Davis, J.A. & Freeze, H.H. Studies of mannose metabolism and effects of long-term Mannose ingestion in the mouse. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 2001; 1528:116-126.
27. Das SK, Banerjee AB. Effect of undecanoic acid on the production of exocellular lipolytic and keratinolytic enzymes by undecanoic acid-sensitive and -resistant strains of Trichophyton rubrum. Sabouraudia. 1982; 20:179–184.
28. Mohamed Ismail A, Sheik Jahabar Ali H. Phytochemical diversity on the leaves of methanol extract of Hyptis suaveolens L (point.) From Cuddalore (Chidambaram) district, Tamil Nadu, India. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research. 2017; 8(12):22863-22866.
29. Awa EP, Ibrahim S, Ameh DA. GC/MS analysis and antimicrobial activity of diethyl ether fraction of methanolic extract from the stem bark of Annona senegalensis Pers. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res. 2012; 3:4213–4218.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).