TRADITIONAL USES, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE OF UNANI MEDICINE AN UPDATED REVIEW
Papaver somniferum commonly known as Khashkhash /Afyon, belongs to family Papaveraceae. It is one of those traditional plants, which have a long history of usage as medicine. The opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) produces some of the most widely used medicinal alkaloids like morphine, codeine, thebain and porphyroxine which are the most important component of this plant. Apart from these alkaloids, opium poppy produces approximately eighty alkaloids belonging to various tetrahydrobenzylisoquinolinederived classes. It has been known for over a century that morphinan alkaloids accumulate in the latex of opium poppy. According to Unani literature, it possesses most important theurapeutic values as modern literature and research studies also prove its therapeutical importance. It is used as analgesic, narcotic, sedative, stimulant as well as nutritive, etc. It is also useful in headache, cough, insomnia, cardiac asthma, and biliary colic. In this paper we have provide a review on habitate, pharmacological actions, phytochemical with special refrence to Unani Medicine. In this review, an attempt is made to explore the complete information of Papaver somniferum including its phytochemistry and pharmacology.
Key words: Khashkhash, Biliary colic, Alkaloid, phytochemistry.
2. Dubey N. P, Basic principles of integrated medicine. 3rd edition. World Association of Integrated Medicine. 2013. pp10.
3. Ameri A, Heydarirad G, Rezaeizadeh H, Choopani R, Ghobadi A, Gachkar A. Medicinal plants contain mucilage used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Pharm Biol, 2015; 53(4):615–623.
4. O. Kodad, R. Soclac company, Variability of Oil Content and of Major Fatty Acid Composition in Almond (Prunus amygdalus Batsch) and Its Relationship with Kernel Quality. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2008; 56:4096–4101.
5. Nejad A.S.M, Kamkar A, Giri A, Aziz A, Pourmahmoudi,Ethnobotany and folk medicinal uses of major trees and shrubs in Northern Iran. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2013; 7(7):284-289, 17
6. Amiri M.S, Jabbarzadeh P, Akhondi M, An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by indigenous people in Zangelanlo district, Northeast Iran. Journal of Medicinal Plants Researc,. 2012; 6(5):749-753,
7. Schiff PL. Opium and Its Alkaloids. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 2002 Vol. 66, Summer.
8. Haas LF. Papaver somniferum (opium poppy). Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 1995; 58(4):402.
9. Anonymous. Standardisation of single drugs of unani medicine, 2nd edition, CCRUM, Ministry of H & FW, New Delhi, Govt. of India; 2006: part III, pp. 173-175.
10. ITIS https://web.archive.org
11. Kirtikar K.R, Basu B.D, I.C.S, Indian medicinal plants, 2nd edition., International Book Distributers, Dehradun. 1987: Vol. II, pp. 124-127.
12. Anonymous. The Wealth of India, CSIR, New Delhi. 1997; 11:233-248.
13. Nadkarni K., The Indian Materia Medica, Bombay: A.K Nadkarni Publishers; 1989; 1:902-903.
14. Ibn Baitar, Aljame Li Mufradat al Advia wal Aghzia, (Urdu translation). CCRUM, Dept. of AYUSH, Ministry of H & FW, Govt. of India, New Delhi. YN, Vol.1I pp. 125-127.
15. Azam M.K, Muheet e azam (Urdu Translation by CCRUM), New Delhi: 61-65 Institutional Area; 2013: pp.477-479.
16. Ghani M.N. Khazaenul Advia.. Sheikh Muhammad Basheer and Sons, Lahore. YNM, Part II, Pp 513.
17. Brito A.M.S, Godin A.M, Augusto P.S.A, Menezes R.R, Melo S.F, Dutra MGMB, Costa SOAM, Goulart F.A, Rodrigues F.F, Ísis Morais M, Machado R.R, Coelho M.M, Antiallodynic activity of leflunomide is partially inhibited by naltrexone and glibenclamide and associated with reduced production of TNF-α and CXCL-1. Send to
Eur J Pharmacol, 2018; 818:17-25. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2017.10.026.
18. Arner S, Meyerson BA, Lack of analgesic effect of opioids on neuropathic and idiopathic forms of pain, 1988. Pp 33:11–23.
19. Terashvili M, Wu H, Leitermann RJ, Sun H, Clithero AD, Tseng LF, Differential mechanisms of antianalgesia induced by endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 in the ventral periaqueductal gray of the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005, 312:1257–1265.
20. Sweitzer SM, Schubert P, and De Leo JA, Propentofylline, a glial modulating agent, exhibits antiallodynic properties in a rat model of neuropathic pain. JPharmacol Exp Ther. 2001; 297:1210–1217.
21. Colburn RW, Rickman AJ, DeLeo JA, The effects of site and type of nerve injury on spinal glial activation and neuropathic pain behavior. Exp Neurol, 1999; 157: 289–304.
22. Watkins LR, Milligan ED, and Maier SF Glial activation: a driving force for pathological pain. Trends Neurosci, 2001; 24:450–455.
23. Crain SM and Shen KF, Ultra-low concentrations of naloxone selectively antagonize excitatory effects of morphine on sensory neurons, thereby increasing its antinociceptive potency and attenuating tolerance/dependence during chronic cotreatment. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 1995; 92:10540–10544.
24. Johnston IN, Westbrook RF, Inhibition of morphine analgesia by LPS: role of opioid and NMDA receptors and spinal glia. Behav Brain Res, Pain, 2005, 156:75–83.
25. Raghavendra V, Tanga F, Rutkowski MD, and DeLeo JA, Anti-hyperalgesic and morphine-sparing actions of propentofylline following peripheral nerve injury in rats: mechanistic implications of spinal glia and proinflammatory cytokines. Pain, 2002; 104:655–664.
26. McNicol ED, Midbari A, Eisenberg E. Opioids for neuropathic pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 8, Art, No.: CD006146. DOI, 10.1002/14651858.CD006146.pub2.
27. Vree T, Van Dongen, R, KoopmanKimenai P, “Codeine Analgesia is Due to Codeine-6-glucuronide, not Morphine.” International Journal of Clinical Practice, 2000; 54(6):395.
28. Simera M., Poliacek J., and Jakus J, “Central Antitussive Effect of Codeine in the Anesthetized Rabbit, European Journal of Medical Research, 2010; 15:184-8.
29. Smith J, Owen E, Earis J, Woodcock A, Effect of Codeine on Objective Measurement of Cough in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2006; 117(4):831-5.
30. Porreca F, Cowan A, Raffa R. B, and Tallarida, R. J, Ketazocines and Morphine: Effects on Gastrointestinal Transit after Central and Peripheral Administration, Life Sciences, 1983; 32(15):1785-90
31. Rozov-Ung, Mreyoud, A, Moore, J, Wilding, G. E, Khawam, E, Lackner, J. M, and Sitrin, M. D. Detection of Drug Effects on Gastric Emptying and Contractility Using a Wireless Motility Capsule, BMC Gastroenterology, 2014; 14(1): 2.
32. Hajek P, McRobbie H, Myers K. Efficacy of Cytisine in Helping Smokers Quit: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis, Thorax, 2013; 68 (11):1037-42.
33. West R, Zatonski W, Cedzynska M, Lewandowska D, Pazik J, Aveyard P, and Stapleton J, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Cytisine for Smoking Cessation, New England Journal of Medicine, 2011; 365(13):1193-200.
34. Agyapong V. I. O, Singh K, Savage M, Thekiso T. B, Finn, M., Farren, C. K., and McLoughlin, D. M, Use of Codeine-Containing Medicines by Irish Psychiatric Inpatients before and after Regulatory Limitations on Their Supply, Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine, 2013; 30(01):7-12
35. Takita K., Herlenius E., Yamamoto Y., and Lindahl S. G, Effects of Neuroactive Substances on the Morphine-Induced Respiratory Depression; an in vitro Study, Brain Research, 2000; 884(1): 201-5.
36. Clarke P. B., Fu D. S., Jakubovic A., Fibiger, H. C, Evidence that Mesolimbic Dopaminergic Activation Underlies the Locomotor Stimulant Action of Nicotine in Rats, Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1988; 246(2):701-8.
37. Raghavendra V, Tanga F, Rutkowski MD, and DeLeo JA, Anti-hyperalgesic and morphine-sparing actions of propentofylline following peripheral nerve injury in rats: mechanistic implications of spinal glia and proinflammatory cytokines. Pain, 2002; 104:655–664.
38. Willette R.E., Analgesic agents, in Textbook of Organic Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 10th ed., (edit., Delgado, J.N. and Remers, W.A.), Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia PA, 1998, pp. 687-71.
39. Schmeller T. and Wink M., “Utilization of alkaloids in modern medicine,” in Alkaloids, (edit., Roberts, M.F. and Wink, M.), Plenum Press, New York NY, 1998, pp. 435-459.
40. Boselli G, Therapeutic activity of an association of a mucolytic drug and a bronchodilator agent in the treatment of respiratory inflammations, Minerva Med, 1973; 64(79):4128-3.
41. Chaudhry NMA, Tariq P, In vitro antibacterial activities of kalonji, cumin and poppy seed, Pak. J. Bot., 2008; 40(1):461-467,
42. Sofowora AE, Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicines in Africa, 2nd edition, Spectrum Books, Ibadan, Nigeria. p. 289
43. Okigbo N, Anuagasi CL, Amadi JE. Advances in selected medicinal and aromatic plants indigenous to Africa, Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2009; 3(2):086-095.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).