Assessment of Fatty Acid, Proximate and Quantitative Phytochemical Compositions of Matured Stem of Costus afer (Bush Cane).

  • KT Nwauche Department of Chemical Sciences (Biochemistry Unit), Rhema University, Aba, Abia State, Nigeria.
  • FC Anacletus Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria.
  • CC Ighorodje-Monago Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria.


This study estimated the fatty acid, proximate and quantitative phytochemical compositions of Costus afer matured stem collected from Choba campus of University of Port Harcourt, in Choba community, Rivers State. This was carried out using standard procedures of analysis (fatty acid and proximate) as well as gas chromatographic method (quantitative phytochemical analysis). The fatty acid analysis of the plant stem revealed high contents of linolenic acid (32.26%), linoleic acid (25.89%) and palmitic acid (25.48%) and moderate levels of oleic acid (7.11%) and stearic acid (6.36%) while myristic acid, palmitoleic acid, arachidonic acid, behenic acid and lignoceric acid was low and caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, margaric acid, arachidonic acid, erucic acid were absent. The results of the proximate composition of the stem of Costus afer indicated that total carbohydrate composition of Costus afer stem was the highest (54.98%) while crude fat had the lowest value of 1.15%. The moisture content had a moderate value of 22.15% while total ash (4.60%), crude protein (7.72%) and crude fibre (9.40%) values were low. The gas chromatographic analysis of the stem indicated that the total alkaloid composition was 70.59mg/100g with high compositions of papaverine (44.72%), methyl morphine (23.24%), morphine (17.92%) and narcotine (14.11%). The total flavonoids concentration was 28.29mg/100g. Myricetin (69.79%) had the highest value with moderate levels of quercetin (14.88%) and kaempferol (9.78%). The total composition of saponin was 2.87mg/100g. The sapogenin content of the stem (39.20%) was the highest with moderate levels of diosgenin (26.13%), saponine (22.12%) and tigonine (9.76%) while gitogenin value (2.28%) was observed to be low. The analysis of the plant stem showed the presence of glycosides (22.35mg/100mg) made up mainly of costugenin (65.60%), digitoxin (18.73%), digoxin (6.28%), salicin (4.76%) and low levels of ouabain (1.95%) and kaemferol-3-rhamnoside (1.08%). The study has shown that matured stems of Costus afer can contribute greatly towards meeting human nutritional requirements and suggest the possibility of its use in folklore medicine.

Keywords: Costus afer, phytochemicals, proximate composition, fatty acids.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

KT Nwauche, Department of Chemical Sciences (Biochemistry Unit), Rhema University, Aba, Abia State, Nigeria.

Department of Chemical Sciences (Biochemistry Unit), Rhema University, Aba, Abia State, Nigeria.

FC Anacletus, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria.

CC Ighorodje-Monago, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria.


1. Okwu, D.E. (2005). Phytochemicals, Vitamins and Mineral Content of Two Nigeria Medicinal Plants. International Journal of Molecular and Advance Sciences, 1(4): 375-381.
2. Uruquiaga, I. and Leighton F. (2000). Plant Polyphenol Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress. Biological Research, 33: 159-165.
3. Okwu, D.E. and Okwu, M.E. (2004). Chemical Composition of Spondias mombim Linn Plants Parts. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Environmental, 6: 140-147.
4. Akpan, M.M., Odeomena, C.S., Nwachukwu, C.N. and Danladi, B. (2012). Antimicrobial Assessment of Ethanolic Extract of Costus afer Leaves. Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research, 2(3): 335-341.
5. Evans, W.C. (2005). Biological and Geographical Sources of Drug. In Evans, W.C. (Ed) Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy, 15th Edn. India: Elsevier, pp. 13-14.
6. Mccance, R.A. and Widdowson, E.M. (1940). The Composition of Foods. Medical Research Council Special Report. London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office, pp. 235.
7. Melchias, G. (2001). Biodiversity and Conservation. Enfield. In: Emmanuel K. Boon and Luc Hens, (Eds.) Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Sustainable Development; Relevance for Africa Kamla-Raj Enterprises 2007 Tribes and Trials. Science Publishers Incorporation, 1: 121-139.
8. Edeoga, H.O. and Okoli, B.E. (2000). Chromosome Numbers of Costus lucanusianus (Costaceae) in Nigeria. Folia Geobotanica, 35: 315-318.
9. Iwu, M.M. (1983). Traditional Igbo Medicine. University of Nigeria, Nsukka: Institute of African Studies Publication, pp. 112-144.
10. Aweke, G. (2007). Costus afer (Ker Gawl). In: Schmelzer, G.H. and Gurib-Fakim, A. (Eds). Medicinal Plants. Plant Resources of Tropical Africa, 11:1
11. Nyananyo, B.L. (2006). Plants from the Niger Delta. International Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 3(4): 21-25.
12. Nwauche, K. T., Monago, C.C. and Anacletus, F.C. (2014) Antihyperglycemic activity of the aqueous extract of Costus afer stem alone and in combination with metformin. European journal of biotechnology and bioscience 1 (5): 19-25.
13. Anaga, A.O., Njoku, C.J., Ekejiuba, E.S., Esiaka, M.N. and Asuzu I.U. (2004). Investigation of the Methanolic Leaf Extract of Costus afer Ker Gawl for Pharmacological Activities In Vitro and In Vivo. Phytomedicine, 11(2-3): 242-248.
14. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (2006). Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC (W.Horwitiz, Ed.) 18th Edn. Washington, D.C., 1: 600-792.
15. Ngounou, F.N., Manfouo, R.N., Tapondjou, L.A., Lontsi, D., Kuete, Penlap, V., Etoa, F.X., Dubois, M.A.L. and Sondengam, B.L. (2005). Antimicrobial Diterpeniod Alkaloids from Erythrophleum Suavelens Brenan. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 19(2), 221-226.
16. Harborne, J.B. (1989). General Procedures and Measurement of Total Phenolics. In: Methods in Plant Biochemistry. London: Academic Press, 1:1-28.
17. Mingquan, G, Lei, Z. and Zhiqiang, L. (2009). Analysis of Saponins from Leaves of Aralia Elata by Liquid Chromatography and Multistage Tandem Mass Spectrometry. London: Arnold, pp. 754.
18. Oluwaniyi, O.O. and Ibiyemi, S.A. (2007). A Study of the Extractability of Thevetia Glycosides with Alcohol Mixture. Journal of Food Technology, 5(2): 147-151.
19. Palmquist, D.L. and Jenkins, T.C. (2003). Challenges with Fats and Fatty Acid Methods. Journal of Animal Science, 81: 3250-3254.
20. Idris, S., Ndamitso, M.M., Yisa, J., Dauda, B.E.N. and Jacob, J.O. (2010). The Proximate and Mineral Composition of the Leaves and Stems of Balanites aegyptiaca. International Journal of Applied Biological Research, 2(1): 76-87.
21. Ikewuchi, J. (2009). Chemical Profile of Tridax procumbens linn. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8(5): 548-550.
22. Idris, S., Iyaka, Y.A., Ndamitso, M.M. and Paiko, Y.B. (2011). Nutritional Composition of the Leaves and Stems of Ocimum gratissimum. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences, 2(5): 801-805.
23. Uraih, N. and Izuagbe, Y. (1990). Public Health, Food and Industrial Microbiology. Nigeria: Uniben Press, pp. 250.
24. Javid, H., Abdul, L. K., Najeeb, U. R., Zainullah, F. K., Sejed, T and Zabta, K. S. (2009). Proximate and Nutrient Investigations of Selected Medicinal Plants Species of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8: 620-624.
25. Essiett, U.A. and Akpan, E.M. (2013). Proximate Composition and Phytochemical Constituents of Aspilia africana and Tithonia diversifolia Stems. Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences, 2(4): 33-37.
26. Lintas, C. (1992). Nutritional Aspects of Fruits and Vegetables Consumption. Options Mediterraeennes, 19: 79-87.
27. Okoh, E., Uchechukwu, R., Husseini, S.J. and Asuquo, T.S. (2011). Proximate and Phytochemical Analysis of Leaf, Stem and Root of Eugenia uniflora. Journal of Natural Product and Plant Resources, 1(4): 1-4.
28. Ishida, H., Suzuno, H., Sugiyama, N., Innami, S., Todokoro, T. and Maekawa, A. (2000). Nutritional Evaluation of Chemical Component of Leaves Stalks and Stems of Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea Batatas Poir). Food Chemistry, 68: 359-367.
29. Ramula, P. and Rao, P.U. (2003). Dietary Fibre Contents of Fruits and Leafy Vegetables. Nutrition News, 24(3): 1-6.
30. Dillard, C.J. and German, J.B. (2000). Phytochemicals: Nutraceuticals and Human Health. Journal of Science of Food & Agriculture, 80(12): 1744-1756.
31. Penny, M.K., Williams, S.H. and Lawrence, J.A. (2002). Fish Consumption, Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Cardiovascular Disease. Circulation, 106(21): 2747-2757.
32. Cunnane, S. and Anderson, M. (1997). Pure Linoleate Deficiency in the Rat: Influence on growth, accumulation of n-6 polyunsaturates, and (1-14C) linoleate oxidation. Journal of Lipid Research, 38 (4): 805-812.
33. Teres, S., Barcelo-Coblijn, G., Benet, M., Alvarez, R., Bressani, R., Halver, J.E. and Escriba, P.V. (2008). Oleic Acid Content is Responsible for the Reduction in Blood Pressure Induced by Olive Oil. National Academy of Sciences, 105 (37): 13811-13816.
34. Sofowora, A. (1993). Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Ltd, pp. 289.

35. Liu, J.K. and Couldwell, W.T. (2005). Intra-Arterial Papaverine Infusions for the Treatment of Cerebral Vasospasm Induced by Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care, 2(2): 124-132.
36. Takeuchi, K., Sakamoto, S., Nagayoshi, Y., Nishizawa, H. and Matsubara, J. (2004). Reactivity of the Human Internal Thoracic Artery to Vasodilators in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting. European Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery, 26(5): 956-959.
37. Desvaux, P. (2005). An Overview of the Management of Erectile Disorders. Presse Medicale, 13:5-7.
38. Bella, A.J. and Brock, G.B. (2004). Intracavernous Pharmacotherapy for Erectile Dysfunction. Endocrine, 23(2-3): 149-155.
39. Meine, T.J., Roe, M.T. and Chen, A.Y. (2005). Association of Intravenous Morphine used and Outcomes in Acute Coronary Syndromes: Results from the Crusade Quality Improvement Initiative. American Heart Journal, 149(6): 1043-1049.
40. Stefano, G. and Haleh, V. (2010). Diarrhoea: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Advances. New York: Humana Press, pp. 452.
41. Soetan, K.O. (2008). Pharmacological and other Beneficial Effects of Anti-Nutritional Factors in Plants. A Review: African Journal of Biotechnology, 7: 4713-4721.
42. Middleton, R. J., Kandaswani, C. and Theoharides, T.C. (2000). The Effects of Plant Flavonoids on Mammalian Cells: Implications for Inflammation, Heart Disease and Cancer. Pharmacological Reviews, 52: 673-751.
43. Grubesic, R.J., Vukovic, J., Kremer, D. and Vladimir-Knezevic, S. (2007). Flavonoid Content Assay: Prevalidation and Application on Plantago Species. Acta Chimica Slovenica, 54: 397-406.
44. Knekt, P., Kumpulainen, J. and Jarvinen, R. (2002). Flavonoid Intake and Risk of Chronic Diseases. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 76(3): 560-568.
45. Schuier, M., Sies, H, Lllek, B and Fisher, H. (2005). Cocoa-Related Flavonoids Inhibit CFTR-Mediated Chloride Transport across T84 Human Colon Epithelia. Journal of Nutrition, 135(10): 2320-2326.
46. Gonzalez-Segovia, R., Quintanar, J.L., Salinar, E., Ceballos-Salazar, R., Aviles-Jimenez, F. and Torres-Lopez, J. (2008). Effect of the Flavonoid Quercetin on Inflammation and Lipid Peroxidation Induced by Helicobacter Pylori in Gastric Mucosa of Guinea Pig. Journal of Gastroenterology, 43(6): 441-447.
47. Nothings, U., Murphy, S.P., Wilkens, L.R., Henderson, B.E. and Kolonel, L.N. (2007). Flavonols and Pancreatic Cancer Risk. The Multiethnic Cohort Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 166(8): 924-931.
48. Sparg, S.G., Light, M.E. and Staden, J. (2004). Biological Activities and Distribution of Plant Saponins. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 94: 219-243.
49. Sahu, N.P., Baner Jee, S., Mondal, N.B. and Mandal, D. (2008). Steroidal Saponins. In: Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products, Vol 89. Vienna: Spinger, pp. 45-141.
50. Marker, R.E. and Krueger, J. (1940). Sterols. CXII. Sapogenins. XLI. The Preparation of Trillin and its Conversion to Progesterone. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 62(12): 3349-3350.
51. Djerassi, C. (1992). Steroids Research at Syntax. The Pill and Cortisone: Steroids, 57(12): 631-641.
52. Liu, J., Sempos, C., Donahue, R., Dorn, J., Trevisan, M. and Grundy, S.M. (2005). Joint Distribution of Non-HDL and LDL-Cholesterol and Coronary Heart Disease Risk Prediction among Individuals with and without Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 28(8): 1916-1921.
53. Cayen, M.N. and Dvornik, D. (1979). Effects of Diosgenin on Lipid Metabolism in Rats. Journal of Lipid Research, 20(2): 162-174.
54. Francis, G., Zohar, K., Harinder, P.S.M. and Klaus, B. (2002). The Biological Action of Saponins in Animal Systems: A Review. British Journal of Nutrition. 88(6): 587-605.
55. Kervinen, J., Tobin, G.J., Costa, J. Waugh, D.S., Wlodawer, A. and Zdanov, A. (1999). Crystal Structure of Plant Aspartic Proteinase Prophytepsin: Inactivation and Vacuolar Targeting. Embo Journal, 18: 3947-3955.
56. Richtmyer, N.K. and Yeakel, E.H. (1934). The Structure of Populin. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 56 (11): 2495-2497
24 Views | 32 Downloads
How to Cite
Nwauche, K., Anacletus, F., & Ighorodje-Monago, C. (2018). Assessment of Fatty Acid, Proximate and Quantitative Phytochemical Compositions of Matured Stem of Costus afer (Bush Cane). Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 8(6), 217-224.