An updated review on Anti-Alzheimer’s herbal drugs

  • Nihitha Sanka Department of Pharmaceutics, Chalapathi institute of Pharmaceutical sciences, Lam, Guntur, India
  • N Santhipriya Department of Pharmaceutics, Chalapathi institute of Pharmaceutical sciences, Lam, Guntur, India
  • Rama Rao Nadendla Department of Pharmaceutics, Chalapathi institute of Pharmaceutical sciences, Lam, Guntur, India

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is related to cognitive impairment, dementia observed generally in aged population due to neurodegeneration in an ongoing manner. It gradually worsens memory power of the patient. The hallmark diagnosis features includes formation of senile plaques and Neurofibrillary tangles (NFT’S) [1, 2]. Too little availability of Acetyl choline (ACh) a neurotransmitter in the cerebral region due to metabolism by an enzyme Acetyl choline esterase before showing its action and neural death are the primary reasons for AD. There are many categories of Anti-Alzheimer’s drugs available for management of AD in the market but due to lack of patient compliance successful outcomes were not observed [3]. Apart from this including Nutraceuticals in diet daily routine, Aromatherapy, modifications in the regular schedule, practicing yoga regularly relaxes mind and body from tensions, insomnia, blood circulation, detoxification of organs due to rhythmic breathings and reduce frequency of incidence of headache  are proven to show best results by relieving stress according to survey[4-9]. At present herbal medicine has turn out to be best choice for the management of AD because of its availability, very economic, good patient compliance, ease of formulation and lower deleterious side effects [10, 11]. Novel techniques can be used for the development of herbal medicine. This review totally discuses about the occurrence of AD, its Pathophysiology, different stages in the disorder, various selective therapeutic targets for AD, available Anti-AD herbal drugs such as Curcumin, Withania somnifera, Bhrami, Ginkgo biloba, guggul, ginseng, herbs with essential oils, volatile oils, source and cultivation of the herbs, mechanism of action of the Phytochemicals in the herb responsible for treating AD.


Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), cognitive impairment, Dementia, Senile plaques, Nutraceuticals, Herbal medicine, Phytoconstituents.          

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Nihitha Sanka, Department of Pharmaceutics, Chalapathi institute of Pharmaceutical sciences, Lam, Guntur, India

Department of Pharmaceutics, Chalapathi institute of Pharmaceutical sciences, Lam, Guntur, India    

N Santhipriya, Department of Pharmaceutics, Chalapathi institute of Pharmaceutical sciences, Lam, Guntur, India

Department of Pharmaceutics, Chalapathi institute of Pharmaceutical sciences, Lam, Guntur, India    

Rama Rao Nadendla, Department of Pharmaceutics, Chalapathi institute of Pharmaceutical sciences, Lam, Guntur, India

Department of Pharmaceutics, Chalapathi institute of Pharmaceutical sciences, Lam, Guntur, India    

References

1. Anne Waug, Allison Grant. Ross and Wilson. Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness. 9th Edition. Churchill Livingstone. 2004.
2. Rang HP, Dale MM, Ritter JM, Flower RJ. Rang and Dale’s Pharmacology. 6th Edition.
3. Dennis Seow, MBBS, MRCP, FAMS (Geriatric Medicine), Serge Gauthier, MD, FRCPC2, Pharmacotherapy of Alzheimer Disease. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 2007; 52(10):620-629.
4. John Schmid. Aromatherapy for Alzheimer's and Dementia - Good Alternative Therapy. 2018, 1-14.
5. Benjamin Pearce, Aromatherapy for Alzheimer’s. 2013; 1-14.
6. Jimbo D , Kimura Y, Taniguchi M, Inoue M, Urakami K. Effect of aromatherapy on patients with Alzheimer's disease. PubMed – NCBI, 2009; 9(4):173-9.
7. Hannah Nichols. Alzheimer's disease: Music, meditation may improve early cognitive decline, January 2017, 1-4.
8. Khalsa DS. Stress, Meditation, and Alzheimer's Disease Prevention: Where The Evidence Stands. PubMed – NCBI, 2015; 48(1):1-12.
9. Jennifer d'angelo friedman. Benefits of Yoga and Meditation for Alzheimer’s and Dementia, Yoga journal, 2015; 23:1-3.
10. Rajagopal PL, Ashlyjames, K.Premaletha P.N.Sajith kumar, Journal of International Academic research for Multidisciplinary. 2013; (9):1-14.
11. Agarwal P, Alok S, Fatima A, Singh PP. Herbal remedies for neurodegenerative disorder (Alzheimer's disease): A Review, IJPSR, 2013; 4(9):3328-3340.
12. https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/alzheimers
13. Finkel, Richard; Clark, Michelle A; Cubeddu, Luigi X. Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology, 4th Edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2009.
14. Siegfried K. The cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease, Central Clinical Research/Neuroscience, Hoechsl AG, anhjirt ( M ), Germany.
15. Bagad M, Khan Z, towards understanding Alzheimer’s disease- An overview, Brain atrophy in advanced Alzheimer’s disease
https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Brain-Atrophy-in-Advanced-Alzheimers-Disease
16. Fisiopatología de la EA: Nuevos mecanismos, 2014. http://www.revneurol.com/sec/RSS/noticias.php?idNoticia=4446
17. Alistair burns, Robin jacoby, Raymond levy, Neurological Signs in Alzheimer's disease, Age and Ageing 1991; 20:45-5.
18. Tripathi KD. Essentials of Medical Pharmacology. 6th Edition. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd. 2009.
19. christiane Reitz, Alzheimer’s disease and Amyloid cascade hypothesis- A critical overview, International journal of Alzheimer’s disease, 2012, 1-11, https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Alzheimer's-Disease-and-the-Amyloid-Cascade-A-Reitz
20. Amyloid β-protein and Synaptophysin https://medicalneurophys.wordpress.com/2012/08/29/amyloid-%CE%B2-protein-and- synaptophysin/
21. Terry V,Buccafusco JJ, the Cholinergic Hypothesis of Age and Alzheimer's Disease-Related Cognitive Deficits: Recent Challenges and Their Implications for Novel Drug Development, Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics September 2003; 306(3):821-827.
22. Favade Aditya Shahaji*, Chavan Sadhana P, A Review on Alzheimer’s disease and its concepts in ayurveda, International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research, October 2015; 3(10):52-56.
23. Rao RV, Olivier Descamps, Varghese John1 and Dale E Bredesen, Ayurvedic medicinal plants for Alzheimer’s disease: a review, Alzheimer’s Research & Therapy 2012; 1-9.
24. Singhal AK, Naithani V, Bangar OP, Medicinal plants with a potential to treat Alzheimer and associated symptoms, International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases, May-August 2012; 2(2):84-91.
25. Dileepkumar K J Shreevathsa S, Bharathi Hiremath, Shivappa Pujari, Alzheimer's disease : An Ayurvedic Perspective, Jour. of Ayurveda & Holistic Medicine, jan 2015; 2(9):1-6.
26. Singhal AK, Naithani V, Bangar OP. Medicinal plants with a potential to treat Alzheimer and associated symptoms.Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis 2012; 2:84-91.
27. Shiksharthi AR et al., Journal of Pharmacy Research 2012; 5(4):1872-1881.
28. Hassan MAG, Rajkapoor Balasubramanian, Ali Daw Masoud, Zamzam Elmahdi Burkan, Abdussalam Sughir, Raju Senthil Kumar, Role of medicinal plants in neurodegenerative diseases with special emphasis to Alzheimer’s disease, International Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2014; 5(6):454-462.
29. Kaur J, Singh R, Singh G, Kaur H, Kaur J, Kaur M, Singh P, Kaur J, A Systematic Review on Huperzia serrata, International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 2016; 8(8):1250-1255.
30. Roy A, A Review on Medicinal Plants for Alzheimer’s disease.SF J Herb Med, 2017; 1:2.
31. Dastmalachi K. Damien HJ, Dorman, Heikki Vuorela, Raimo, Hiltunen, Plants as potential source for Drug development against Alzheimer’s Disease, International journal of Biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences, 2007; 83-104.
32. Roy A. Role of medicinal plants against Alzheimer’s disease. Int J Complement Alt Med. 2018; 11(4):205‒208.
33. John M. Ringman, Jeffrey L. Cummings, Sally A. Frautschy, Gregory M. Cole, Donna L. Masterman. A Potential Role of the Curry Spice Curcumin in Alzheimer’s disease. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2005; 2(2):131–136.
34. Umadevi M, Rajeswari R, C. Sharmila Rahale, S. Selvavenkadesh, R.Pushpa, K.P.Sampath Kumar, Debjit Bhowmik, Traditional and medicinal uses of Withania somnifera, The pharma innovation, 2012; 1(9):102-109.
35. Gohil KJ, Jagruti A. Patel, A review on Bacopa monniera: Current research and future prospects, International Journal of Green Pharmacy, January-March 2010, 1-9.
36. Sundaramurthi P and Packiam KK, A Review on Pharmacognosy and Pharmacology of Evolvulus alsinoides (l.) , International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 2014; 1-4.
37. Lakshmi T, Roy A, Geetha R., Panax ginseng ­ A universal panacea in the herbal medicine with diverse pharmacological spectrum –A Review , Asian journal of pharmaceutical and clinical research, 2011; 4(1):14­18.
38. Sarup P, Bala S, Kamboj S, Pharmacology and Phytochemistry of Oleo-Gum Resin of Commiphora wightii (Guggulu), Hindawi Publishing Corporation Scientifica 2015; Article ID 138039, 14 pages.
39. Lise Alschuler, ND, FABNO, Magnolia officinalis: An Overview of the Research and Clinical Indications, Plant intelligence and Professional Resource.
40. Gray, Nora.et.al., Caffeoylquinic Acids in Centella asiatic a Protect against Amyloid-β Toxicity, , Journal of Alzheimer’s disease, 2014; 40(2):359-373.
41. Centella Asiatica (Gotu Kola) & Your Brain | Cognitive Vitality | Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation, 2018, 1-6.
42. Haeun Kim, Jin Tae Hong, Mi Hee Park*, Centella asiatica enhances neurogenesis and protects neuronal cells against H2O2-induced oxidative injury, J Biomed Res 2015; 16(3):121-128.
43. Dhanasekaran M , Holcomb LA, Hitt AR, Tharakan B, Porter JW, Young KA, Manyam BV, Centella asiatica extract selectively decreases amyloid beta levels in hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease animal model. - PubMed – NCBI, 2009; 23(1):14-9.
44. Ma y a Caruso, BS; Nor a Gr a y , PhD; Don Don Matthews, PhD; Christ opher Harris, BS; Kirsten W right, ND , MS; Amala, Centella asiatica extract improves cognition in two mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease, International Congress 2018, 1-3.
45. Hamidpour R, Hamidpour S, Hamidpour M, et al. Medicinal Property of Gotu kola (Centella asiatica) from the Selection of Traditional Applications to the Novel Phytotherapy. Arch Cancer Res. 2015, 3: 4.
46. Sunanda BPV, Latha K, Rammohan B, Uma Maheswari MS and Surapaneni Krishna Mohan, Evaluation of the Neuroprotective Effects of Centella asiatica Against Scopolamine Induced Cognitive Impairment in Mice, Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research , 2014; 48(4):31-34.
47. Chiroma SM, Mohamad Aris Mohd Moklas, Che Norma M, Mohamad Taufik H, Zulkhairi Amon, Saravanan Jagadeesan, and Bulama Ibrahim, Neuro-therapeutic Benefits of Centella asiatica on Some Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Review, Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, RJPBCS, 2017; 8(6):549-556.
48. Gohil KJ, Patel JA, Gajjar AK, Pharmacological Review on Centella asiatica: A Potential Herbal Cure all, Indian J Pharm Sci. 2010; 72(5):546–556.
49. Kamalinee A. Deodhar and Nanda W. Shinde, Celastrus paniculatus; medicinal and pharmacological properties: a review, International Journal of Development Research, 2015; 5(9):5526-5531.
50. Jyotishmati Fruit Extract - Health Benefits, Nutrition, & Uses for Jyotishmati Fruit Extract, 2018, 1-8.
51. Sharma S, Tilak AV, GLakhanpal, Manjare R, Rane BT, Sanjay Dabhade, Modulation of working memory by Mentat and Donepezil using ECT induced amnesia in rats, 2016; 593):1-9.
52. Bhanumathy M, Chandrasekar SB, Chandur U, Somasundaram T, Phyto-pharmacology of Celastrus paniculatus: An Overview, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research 2010; 2(3):176-181.
53. Sharma P, Shrivastava NM and Shrivastava S, Role of “Jyotishmati”in the treatment of CNS disorders, International Conference on “Recent Advancement in Science & Technology” (ICRAST 2017), 29-30.
54. Balakumbahan R, Rajamani K and Kumanan K, Acorus calamus: An overview, Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2010; 4(25):2740-2745, December Special Review.
55. Valay S, Ragavendra M., Sushma M., and V. Uma Maheswara Rao, Evaluation of Nootropic activty of Acorous calamus against scopolamine induced Alzheimer's, World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2015; 4(11):1743-1758.
56. Vijayapandi et al., In vitro Anticholinergic and Antihistaminic activities of Acorus calamus linn. Leaves extracts, Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2013; 10(1):95-101.
57. Yende SR, Harle UN, Dajgure DT, Tuse TA and Vyawahare NS, Pharmacological profile of Acorus calamus: An Overview, Pharmacognosy Reviews [Phcog Rev.], 2008; 2(4):22-26.
58. Imam H, Riaz Z, Azhar M, Sofi G, Hussain A. Sweet flag (Acorus calamus Linn.): An incredible medicinal herb. Int J Green Pharm 2013; 7:288-96.
59. Chamomile: Medicinal, Biochemical, and Agricultural Aspects, Introduction to Chamomile, s
60. Singh O, Kahnam Z, Misra N, Manoj, Srivatsava K, Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.): An overview, Pharmacogn Rev. 2011; 5(9):82–95.
61. Assessment report on Matricaria recutita L., flos and Matricaria recutita L., aetheroleum, European Medicines Agency, 2014, 2-62.
62. Asgharzade S, Radiei Z, Mahmoud, Rafieian Kopaei, Effect of Matricaria Chamomilla extract on motor coordination impairement induced by Scopalamine by Rats, Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2015; 5(10):829–833.
63. Ranpariya VL , Parmar SK, Sheth NR, Chandrashekhar VM, Neuroprotective activity of Matricaria recutita against fluorideinduced stress in rats, Pharm Biol. 2011; 49(7):696-701
64. Gupta V, Mittal P, Bansal P, Khokra SL, Kaushik D, Pharmacological Potential of Matricaria recutita-A Review, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research 2010; 2(1):12-16.
65. Sayyar Z, Yazdinezhad A, Hassan M, and Iraj Jafari Anarkooli, Protective Effect of Matricaria chamomilla Ethanolic Extract on Hippocampal Neuron Damage in Rats Exposed to Formaldehyde, Volume 2018, Article ID 6414317, 1-10.
66. Jim English, Galantamine: Preserving Memory and Cognitive Function, By NutritonReview.org - April 22, 2013, 1-4.
67. Michael Heinrich∗, Hooi Lee Teoh, Galanthamine from snowdrop—the development of a modern drug against Alzheimer’s disease from local Caucasian knowledge, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2004; 92:147–162.
68. S.V. Ley, R.M. Myers, Galanthus - an overview, Science Direct Topics, Comprehensive Medicinal Chemistry II, 2007, 1-10.
69. Treating Alzheimer's disease with Galantamine (RAZADYNE®) - Kindly Care, 2018, 1-11.
70. Madhav Mutalik, Mutalik Maitreyee, Tinospora Cordifolia: role in depression, cognition, memory, National Herbalists Association of Australia, 2011; 23(4):168-173.
71. Mittal M, Sharma MM, Batra A, Tinospora cordifolia: a multipurpose medicinal plant- A review, Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies, 2014,: 2(2):32-47.
72. Stasia Bliss, Alzheimer’s – Rosemary Improves Memory.
73. Nancyg, rain-Boosting Rosemary Oil May Slow Alzheimer’s Onset, Budibar, 2016; 1-3.
74. Joseph Nordqvist, Rosemary: Health benefits, precautions, and drug interactions, Medical News today, 201;, 1-6.
75. Filiptsova O.V., et al.., The effects of essential oils of lavender oil and Rosemary on the human short-term memory, Alexandria Journal of Medicine, 2017; 1-4.
76. Filiptsova OV et al. The essential oil of rosemary and its effect on the human image and numerical short-term memory. Egyp. Jour. Bas. App. Sci. 2017; 1-5.
77. Habtemariam S, The Therapeutic Potential of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Diterpenes for Alzheimer’s Disease, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2016; Article ID 2680409, 1-14.
78. Samoylenko V, Zhao J, D. Chuck Dunbar, Ikhlas A. Khan, James W. Rushing, and Ilias Muhammad, New Constituents from Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Fruit Juice, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2006; 54(17):398–6402.
79. Praveen K and Yellamma K: Insilco Identification of Suitable Acetuylcholinesterase Inhibitors from Morinda Citrifolia Linn. With Reference To Alzheimer’s disease. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2014; 5(12):5474-81.
80. Devaprasad M, Kumaran santhalingam, Subramaniyan kannaiyan, Sanmathi suresh3, Benedict paul, Virtual screening of Phytochemicals of Morinda citrifolia as Anti‑inflammatory and Anti‑alzheimer agents using molegro virtual docker on p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase enzyme, Asian J Pharm Clin Res, 2015; 8(6):141-145.
81. Jian Yang*, Rama Gadi, and Talene Thomson, Antioxidant capacity, total phenols, and ascorbic acid content of noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruits and leaves at various stages of maturity, Micronesica. 2011; 41(2):167–176.
82. Jeyabalan S, Subramanian K, Cheekala UMR, Krishnan C. In vitro & ex vivo Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Morinda citrifolia Linn (Noni) Fruit Extract. Pharmacog J. 2017; 9(6):900-5.
83. Steve frailey, Why Noni is So Special- Memory Loss, 2018, 1-8.
84. Giulio Maria, Pasinetti, and Lap Ho, Role of grape seed polyphenols in Alzheimer’s disease neuropathology, Nutr Diet Suppl . 2010; 2010(2):97–103.
85. Heidi J. Wengreen, Ron Munger, Chris Corcoran1, Peter Zhandi, JoAnn Tschanz, Fruit and vegetable intake and cognitive function in the elderly: the cache county study on memory, health and aging, Non-pharmacological Treatments / 1 (Suppl 1) (2005), 100-101.
86. Souad El Gengaihi, Doha H Abou Baker, Grape Seeds Extract as Brain Food: A Review, International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 2017; 9(1):77-85.
87. Pasinetti GM et al., Development of grape seed phenolic extract with anti-oligomeric activity as a novel treatment in progressive supranulear plasy and tauopathies, Journal of neurochemistry, 2010; 114:1557–1568.
88. Wang, Y.J; Thomas, P.; Zhong, J.H.; Bi, F.F.; Kosaraju, S.; Pollard, A.; Fenech, M.; Zhou, X.F. Consumption of Grape Seed Extract Prevents Amyloid-beta Deposition and Attenuates Inflammation in Brain of an Alzheimer's Disease Mouse. Neurotoxicity Research. 2009; 15(1):3-14.
89. Stephen Daniells, Grape seed extract may prevent Alzheimer's: study, Nutra ingredients.com, 2008; 1-2.
90. Yan-Jiang Wang Æ Philip Thomas Æ Jin-Hua Zhong Æ Fang-Fang Bi Æ Shantha Kosaraju Æ Anthony Pollard Æ Michael Fenech Æ Xin-Fu Zhou, Consumption of Grape Seed Extract Prevents Amyloid-b Deposition and Attenuates Inflammation in Brain of an Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse, Neurotox Res 2009; 15:3–14.
91. Gionata De Vico, Vincenzo Guida, and Francesca Carella, Urtica dioica (Stinging Nettle): A Neglected Plant With Emerging Growth Promoter/ Immunostimulant Properties for Farmed Fish, Front Physiol. 2018; 9285):1-5.
92. A. Toldy et al., The beneficial effects of nettle supplementation and exercise on brain lesions and memory in rats, Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 2009; 20:974 –981.
93. Sepide Miraj and Sara Kiani, A review study of therapeutic effects of Salvia officinalis L, Scholars Research Library, 2016; 8(6):299-303.
Statistics
68 Views | 33 Downloads
How to Cite
Sanka, N., Santhipriya, N., & Nadendla, R. R. (2018). An updated review on Anti-Alzheimer’s herbal drugs. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 8(6), 360-372. https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v8i6.2049