ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY (PHENOL AND FLAVONOID CONTENT ) OF THREE DIFFERENT CULTIVARS OF PIPER BETLE L. (PIPERACEAE)
ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF PIPER BETLE L. (PIPERACEAE)
In the present study, an attempt has been made for the estimation of total phenol and flavonoid content and their radical scavenging properties using Piper betle (L.) leaves. In that, Cultivars i.e., Nov Bangla (NB), Sirugamani-1 (SGM-1) and Halisar Sanchi (HS) were selected for this study. The total phenolic content was ranged from 95.04 to 127.33 mg/100g equivalent to gallic acid and flavonoids were ranged from 51.72 to 61.08 mg/ 100g equivalent to standards of Catechin. In vitro antioxidant activity was estimated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), free radical scavenging activity, improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Among all the cultivars, The highest Phenol content (93.79%) was observed for Sirugamani-1 by DPPH method and highest Phenol content (96.12% & 6791.86 (µg/g) was obtained for Halisar Sanchi by ABTS assay and FRAP activity respectively. The study revealed that the leaves of Piper betle (L.) has higher amount of antioxidant activity and it could be used for any novel drug preparation.
2. Guha P, Betel leaf: The neglected green gold of India, Journal of Health Economics; 2006; 19:87-93.
3. Krishna K.S, Geetha V.S, Kuruvilla A, Determination of local anesthetic action of betel leaf extract alone and with betel nut using infiltration and surface anesthesia. Journal of Natural Medicine; 2001; 1:28-32.
4. Dhote S, Devi P.U, Pathak A.K, Goswami R.B, Studies on anti-Genotoxic effect of Piper betle leaves, Journal of Natural Remedies; 2007; 7:247-251.
5. Norton S.A, Betel: consumption and consequences, Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology; 1998; 38:81-88.
6. Nigam S.S, Purohit R.M, Chemical examination of the essential oil of the leaves of Piper betle, Reichstoffe, Aromen, Koerperpflegemittel; 1962; 12:185.
7. Gopalan C, Rama S.B.V, Balasubramanian S.C, Nutritive value of Indian foods, National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, Indian Council of Medical Research: New Delhi, 1984.
8. Deshpande S.M, Upadhyay R.R, Singh R.P, Chemical study of Piper betle leaves, Current Science; 1970; 39: 372.
9. Anonymous The Wealth of India, A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products, Vol III, Publication and Information Directorate CSIR: New Delhi, 1969.
10. Morton J.F, Widespread tannin intake via stimulants and masticatories, especially guarana, kola nut, betel vine, and accessories, Basic Life Science; 1992; 59:739-765.
11. Amonkar A.J, Nagabhushan M, D' Souza A.V, Bhide S.V, Hydroxychavicol: A new phenolic antimutagen from betel leaf, Food and Chemical Toxicology journal; 1986; 24:1321-1324.
12. Padma P.R, Lalitha V.S, Amonkar A.J, Bhide S.V, Anti carcinogenic effect of betel leaf extract against tobacco carcinogens, Cancer Letter; 1989; 45:195-202.
13. Arambewela L.S, Arawwawala L.D, Ratna sooriya W.D, Antidiabetic activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Piper betle leaves in rats, Journal of Ethno pharmacology; 2005; 102:239-245.
14. Mazura M.P, Nuziah H, Rasadah M.A, Ling S.K, Evaluation of Piper betle on platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor binding activities, Milwaukee Journal of Sentinel; 2007; 26:79-83.
15. Nalina T, Rahim Z , The crude aqueous extract of Piper betle L and its antibacterial effect towards Streptococcus mutans, American Journal of Biochemistry and Bio technology ; 2007; 3:10-15.
16. Hajare R, Darvhekar V.M, Shewale A, Patil V , Evaluation of antihistaminic activity of piper betel leaf in guinea pig, African Journal Pharmacy and Pharmacology; 2011; 5: 113-117.
17. Dohi T, Terada H, Anamura S, Okamoto H, Tsujimoto A, The anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic dental medicaments as determined by mouse ear edema assay, Japanese Journal of Pharmacology; 1989; 49: 535-539.
18. Azuine M.A, Amonkar A.J, Bhide S.V , Chemo preventive efficacy of betel leaf extract and its constituents on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced carcinogenesis and their effect on drug detoxification system in mouse skin, Indian Journal of Experimental Biology; 1991; 29: 346-351.
19. Bhide S.V, Zariwala M.B, Amonkar A.J, Azuine M.A, Chemo preventive efficacy of a betel leaf extract against Benzo[a]pyrene-induced for stomach tumors in mice, Journal of Ethno pharmacology; 1991; 34: 207-213.
20. Pin K.Y, Luqman C.A, Abdulla R.A, Mazura M.P, Fadzureena J, et. al., Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Extracts of betel leaves (Piper betle) from solvents with different polarities, Journal of Tropical Forest Science; 2010; 22: 448-455.
21. Jaganath I.B, Ng L. t, Piper betle Herbs-The Green Pharmacy of Malaysia, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Kuala Lumpur; 2000, pp. 81-83.
22. Hagerman A, Harvey-Mueller I, Makkar , H. P. S, Quantification of tannins in tree foliage-In Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation, A laboratory manual, Vienna; FAO/IAEA ; 2000, p 4-25.
23. Chun O.K, Kim D.O and Lee C.Y, Superoxide radical scavenging activity of the major poly phenols in fresh plums, Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry; 2003; 51, 8067-8072.
24. Blois, M.S., Antioxidant Determinations by the Use of a Stable Free Radical Nature; 1958; 181, 1199-1200.
25. Benzie, I.F., and Strain J.J, The Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) as a Measure of “Antioxidant Power”: The FRAP Assay, Analytical Biochemistry; 1996; 239, 70-76.
26. Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C, Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay, Free Radical Biology & Medicine; 1999; 26(9-0):1231-1237.
27. Nur S.N, Nalina T, Zubaidah, H.A.R., Antioxidant and cyto protective activities of Piper betle, Areca catechu, Un cariagambir and betel quid with and without calcium hydroxide, BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine; 2013; 13:351.
28. Dasgupta N, De B, Antioxidant activity of Piper betle L. leaf extract in vitro. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nation; 2004; 88:219-222.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0). that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).