REVIEW ON SWERTIA CHIRATA AS TRADITIONAL USES TO ITS PYHTOCHEMISTRY AND PHRMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY
Swertia chirata (Gentianaceae), is a popular medicinal plant native to temperate Himalaya. The plant of Swertia chirata is found at an altitude of 1200-1300m, from Bhutan to Kashmir and in the Khasi hills at 1200-1500m. It also can be grown in sub-temperate territories between 1500-2100m altitudes. Chirata has an erect and about 2-3 ft long stem. Herbal medicinal plants are necessary for about for about 80% of the world population in developed and developing countries for their basic and primary health care required owing to better tolerability, superior empathy with human body and having lesser side effects. Herbal plants are considered as rich source of phytochemical ingredients. The main chemical ingredients are Swertiamarin, Amarogentin, Swechirin, Mangiferin, Sweroside, Gentianine, Amaroswerin, Oleanolic acid, Swertanoone, Ursolic acid. Phytochemical analysis divulges alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, glycosides, triterpenoids, saponins, xanthones and ascorbic acid in all samples. Nepali S. chirata was found to have finest TLC (thin layer chromatography). People have been using traditional medicinal plants for thousand years ago. Traditional plants play a very important role in preventing and treating of human diseases. Medicinal usage of Swertia chirata is reported in Indian pharmaceutical codex, the American and the British pharmacopoeias and in the different traditional systems of medicine (Unani, Ayurveda and Siddha). Swertia chirata is commonly known as a bitter tonic in traditional system of medicine for the treatment of fever, loss of appetite, digestive disorders, diabetes, skin and various other diseases.
Keywords: Swertia chirata, swerchirin, Anti-inflammatory, Oleanolic acid, Traditional medicine.
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