IMPROVING THE EFFICACY OF CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE BY USING VERAPAMIL AS A P-GLYCOPROTEIN INHIBITOR IN BREAST CARCINOMA
In women, breast carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer death globally. By the combination of better screening and treatments that moderately improved the survival however much to be done for the women who are refractory to the current therapies. Among Indian females, breast cancer has ranked number one cancer with mortality 12.7 per 100,000 women and age adjusted rate as high as 25.8 per 100,000 women. Statistics reports from various recent national cancer registries were compared for incidence, mortality rates. The age adjusted incidence rate of carcinoma of the breast was found as high as 41 per 100,000 women for Delhi, followed by Chennai (37.9), Bangalore (34.4) and Thiruvananthapuram District (33.7). One of the most common factor for the drug resistance in breast cancer is high expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which is associated with a poor prognosis in patients. Consequently, P-gp represents a potential biomarker of drug resistance. However, a direct role of P-gp as a cause of clinical drug resistance has not been adequately tested in breast cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of cyclophosphamide with and without verapamil on P-gp expression. Verapamil was found specific and effective against P-gp expression in breast cancer. In conclusion, treatment efficacy of cyclophosphamide is increased in combination with verapamil against most advanced breast cancer.
Keywords: P-Glycoprotein; Breast Carcinoma; Verapamil; Cyclophosphamide
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