Antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity of Dichapetalum gelonioides (Roxb.) Engl. (Dichapetalaceae)
Objectives: Dichapetalum gelonioides (Roxb.) Engl. belongs to the family Dichapetalaceae. In the present study, we investigated antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of leaf and fruit of D. gelonioides.
Methods: Maceration process was carried out for extraction of leaf and fruit of D. gelonioides. Agar well diffusion method was employed to evaluate antibacterial activity of extracts against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Poisoned food technique was performed to investigate antifungal activity of extracts against two seed-borne fungi. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging and ferric reducing assays.
Results: Both leaf and fruit extracts were effective in causing inhibition of all test bacteria. Highest and least inhibitory activity was observed against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli respectively. Both Aspergillus niger and Bipolaris sp. were inhibited to >50% by leaf and fruit extracts. Extent of inhibition of Bipolaris sp. was slightly higher when compared to A. niger. Both leaf and fruit extracts showed a dose dependent scavenging of DPPH radicals with high activity being showed by leaf extract. Leaf extract was shown to exhibit marked reducing potential than fruit extract.
Conclusions: Overall, leaf extract was shown to be more effective in displaying antioxidant activity and causing inhibition of bacteria and fungi when compared to fruit extract. The results indicate that the plant possess active principles which are to be purified, characterized and subjected for antimicrobial and antioxidant assays in further studies.
Keywords: Dichapetalum gelonioides, Maceration, Agar well diffusion, Poisoned food technique, DPPH, Ferric reducing
2. Cheikhyoussef A, Shapi M, Matengu K, Ashekele HM, Ethnobotanical study of indigenous knowledge on medicinal plant use by traditional healers in Oshikoto region, Namibia, J Ethnobiol Ethnomed, 2011; 7:10.
3. Borokini TI, Lawal IO, Traditional medicine practices among the Yoruba people of Nigeria: A historical perspective, Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies, 2014; 2(6):20-33.
4. Bhat RB, Medicinal plants and traditional practices of Xhosa people in the Transkei region of Eastern Cape, South Africa, Indian J Tradit Know, 2014; 13(2):292-298.
5. Kumar N, Medicinal plants used in Unani system of medicine for various disorders tehsil Joginder Nagar (H.P), Int J Res Biol Sci, 2014; 4(2) 41-45.
6. Raghavendra HL, Kekuda PTR, Akarsh S, Ranjitha MC, Ashwini HS, Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of different parts of Pleocaulus sessilis (Nees) Bremek (Acanthaceae), Int J Green Pharm, 2017; 11(2):98-107.
8. Noumi E, Treating fibromyoma with herbal medicines in South Cameroon, Indian J Tradit Know, 2010; 9(4):736-741.
9. Yetein MH, Houessou LG, Lougbegnon TO, Teka O, Tente B, Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used for the treatment of malaria in plateau of Allada, Benin (West Africa), J Ethnopharmacol, 2013; 146:154-163.
10. Nagabhushan, Raveesha KA, Ethnobotanical survey and scientific validation of medicinal plants used in the treatment of fungal infections in Agumbe region of Western Ghats, India, Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, 2015; 7(4):273-277.
11. Fang L, Ito A, Chai H, Mi Q, Jones WP, Madulid DR, Oliveros MB, Gao Q, Orjala J, Farnsworth NR, Soejarto DD, Cordell GA, Swanson SM, Pezzuto JM, Kinghorn DA, Cytotoxic constituents from the stem bark of Dichapetalum gelonioides collected in the Philippines, J Nat Prod, 2006; 69(3):332-337.
12. Long C, Aussagues Y, Molinier N, Marcourt L, Vendier L, Samson A, Poughon V, Mutiso PBC, Ausseil F, Sautel F, Arimondo PB, Massiot G, Dichapetalins from Dichapetalum species and their cytotoxic properties, Phytochemistry, 2013; 94:184-191.
13. Appiah AM, Phytochemical constituents and biological activity studies of the stem of Dichapetalum madagascariense, M.Phil thesis, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana, 2013.
14. Jing S, Luo S, Li C, Hua J, Wang Y, Niu X, Li X, Liu Y, Huang C, Wang Y, Li S, Biologically active dichapetalins from Dichapetalum gelonioides, J Nat Prod, 2014; 77(4):882-893.
15. Chama MA, Dziwornu GA, Waibel R, Osei-Safo D, Addae-Mensah I, Otchere J, Wilson M, Isolation, characterization, and anthelminthic activities of a novel dichapetalin and other constituents of Dichapetalum filicaule, Pharm Biol, 2016; 54(7):1179-1188.
16. Osei-Safo D, Dziwornu GA, Salgado A, Sunassee SN, Chama MA, Bi- and bisbibenzyls from the roots of Dichapetalum heudelotii and their antiproliferative activities, Fitoterapia, 2017; 122:95-100.
17. Bhat GK, Flora of South Kanara, Akriti Prints, Mangalore, India, 2014b, Pp 465.
18. Homer FA, Reeves RD, Brooks RR, Baker AJM, Characterization of the nickel-rich extract from the nickel hyperaccumulator Dichapetalum gelonioides, Phytochemistry, 1991; 30(7):2141-2145.
19. Chung LY, Yap KF, Mustafa MR, Goh SH, Imiyabir Z, Muscarinic receptor activity of some Malaysian plant species, Pharm Biol, 2005; 43(8):672–682.
20. Bhandary SK, Kumari S, Bhat VS, Sharmila KP, Bekal MP, Preliminary phytochemical screening of various extracts of Punica granatum peel, whole fruit and seeds, Nitte Univ J Health Sci, 2012; 2:34-38.
21. Pandey A, Tripathi S, Concept of standardization, extraction and pre phytochemical screening strategies for herbal drug, J Pharmacogn Phytochem, 2014; 2(5) 115-119.
22. Cowan MM, Plant products as antimicrobial agents, Clin Microbiol Rev, 1999; 12(4):564-582.
23. Nascimento GGF, Locatelli J, Freitas PC, Silva GL Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic resistant bacteria, Braz J Microbiol, 2000; 31 247-256.
24. Kennedy DO, Wightman EL, Herbal extracts and phytochemicals: Plant secondary metabolites and the enhancement of human brain function, Adv Nutr, 2011; 2:32–50.
25. Li J, Zhao W, Li J, Xia W, Lei L, Zhao S, Research methods to study plant secondary metabolic pathways and their applications in the analysis of the biosynthetic pathway of stilbenes from Polygonum multiflorum – A review, Plant Omics Journal, 2014; 7(3):158-165.
26. Altemimi A, Lakhssassi N, Baharlouei A, Watson DG, Lightfoot DA, Phytochemicals: Extraction, isolation, and identification of bioactive compounds from plant extracts, Plants, 2017; 6:42.
27. Srinivasan D, Nathan S, Suresh T, Perumalsamy LP, Antimicrobial activity of certain Indian medicinal plants used in folkloric medicine, J Ethnopharmacol, 2001; 74(3): 217-220.
28. Ghosh A, Das BK, Roy A, Mandal B, Chandra G, Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plant extracts, J Nat Med, 2008; 62(2):259–262.
29. Aiyegoro OA, Okoh AI, Use of bioactive plant products in combination with standard antibiotics: Implications in antimicrobial chemotherapy, J Med Plants Res, 2009; 3(13):1147-1152.
30. Abdullah EM, Plants: An alternative source for antimicrobials, J Appl Pharm Sci, 2011; 1(6):16-20.
31. Djeussi D, Noumedem JAK, Seukep JA, Fankam AG, Voukeng IK, Tankeo SB, Nkuete AHL, Kuete V, Antibacterial activities of selected edible plants extracts against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, BMC Complementary Altern Med, 2013; 13:164.
32. Shaik G, Sujatha N, Mehar SK, Medicinal plants as source of antibacterial agents to counter Klebsiella pneumoniae, J Appl Pharm Sci, 2014; 4(1):135-147.
33. Saranraj P, Sivasakthi S, Medicinal plants and its antimicrobial properties: A review, Global J Pharmacol, 2014; 8(3):316-327.
34. Islam R, Rahman MS, Hossain R, Nahar N, Hossin B, Ahad A, Rahman SM, Antibacterial activity of combined medicinal plants extract against multiple drug resistant strains, Asian Pac J Trop Dis, 2015; 5(S1):S151-S154.
35. Satish S, Mohana DC, Ranhavendra MP, Raveesha KA, Antifungal activity of some plant extracts against important seed borne pathogens of Aspergillus sp, J Agric Technol, 2007; 3(1):109-119.
36. Dellavalle PD, Cabrera A, Alem D, Larranaga P, Ferreira F, Rizza MD, Antifungal activity of medicinal plant extracts against phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria spp, Chilean J Agric Res, 2011; 71(2):231-239.
37. Wulff EG, Zida E, Torp J, Lund OS, Yucca schidigera extract: a potential biofungicide against seedborne pathogens of sorghum, Plant Pathol, 2012; 61(2):331-338.
38. Lakshmeesha TR, Sateesh MK, Vedashree S, Sofi MS, Antifungal activity of some medicinal plants on Soybean seed-borne Macrophomina phaseolina, J Appl Pharm Sci, 2013; 3(2):84-87.
39. Ahmad L, Pathak N, Zaidi RK, Antifungal potential of plant extracts against seed-borne fungi isolated from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.), J Plant Pathol Microbiol, 2016; 7:350.
40. Kekuda PTR, Raghavendra HL, Antifungal activity of Helichrysum buddleioides DC. against seed borne fungi, EC Microbiology, 2017; 6(2):54-59.
41. Katalinic V, Milos M, Kulisic T, Jukic M, Screening of 70 medicinal plant extracts for antioxidant capacity and total phenols, Food Chem, 2006; 94(4):550-557.
42. Dudonne S, Vitrac X, Coutiere P, Woillez M, Merillon J, Comparative study of antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of 30 plant extracts of industrial interest using DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, SOD, and ORAC assays, J Agric Food Chem, 2009; 57(5):1768-1774.
43. Khan MSS, Syeed SH, Uddin HF, Akter L, Ullah MA, Jahan S, Rashid MH, Screening and evaluation of antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, thrombolytic and membrane stabilizing properties of the methanolic extract and solvent-solvent partitioning effect of Vitex negundo bark, Asian Pac J Trop Dis, 2013; 3(5):393-400.
44. Tel G, Ozturk M, Duru ME, Turkoglu A, Antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of five wild mushroom species with total bioactive contents, Pharm Biol, 2015; 53(6):824-830.
45. Driss D, Kaoubaa M, Mansour RB, Kallel F, Abdelmalek BE, Chaabouni SE, Antioxidant, antimutagenic and cytotoxic properties of essential oil from Corchorus olitorius L. flowers and leaf, Free Rad Antiox, 2016; 6(1):34-43.
46. Jayanthi P, Lalitha P, Reducing power of the solvent extracts of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, 2011; 3(3):126-128.
47. Shanta MA, Ahmed T, Uddin MN, Majumder S, Hossain MS, Rana MS, Phytochemical screening and in vitro determination of antioxidant potential of methanolic extract of Streospermum chelonoides, J Appl Pharm Sci, 2013; 3(3):117-121.
48. Pavithra GM, Siddiqua S, Naik AS, Kekuda PTR, Vinayaka KS, Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of flowers of Wendlandia thyrsoidea, Olea dioica, Lagerstroemia speciosa and Bombax malabaricum, J Appl Pharm Sci, 2013; 3(6):114-120.
49. Krishnamoorthy K, Krishnaswamy T, Subramaniam P, Sellamuthu M, Quantification of phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant potential of various solvent extracts of certain species of Acanthaceae, Int J Green Pharm, 2014; 8(1):58-64.
50. Phatak RS, Hendre AS, Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of fresh leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata, J Pharmacogn Phytochem, 2014; 2(5):32-35.
51. Ahmed D, Khan MM, Saeed R, Comparative analysis of phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant and antibacterial potential of methanolic, hexanic and aqueous extracts from Adiantum caudatum leaves, Antioxidants, 2015; 4:394-409.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0). that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).