• Jatin Gupta MDS Oral Medicine and Radiology
  • Kanupriya Gupta MDS Oral Pathology, PhD Scholar & Senior Research Fellow, Division of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dental Sciences, BHU, Varanasi, India


Xylitol is a pentahydroxy sugar-alcohol which exists in a very low quantity in fruits and vegetables (plums, strawberries, cauliflower, and pumpkin). On commercial scale, xylitol can be produced by chemical and biotechnological processes. Chemical production is costly and extensive in purification steps. The precursor xylose is produced from agricultural biomass by chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis and can be converted to xylitol primarily by yeast strain. Hydrolysis under acidic condition is the more commonly used practice influenced by various process parameters. Biotechnological xylitol production is an integral process of microbial species belonging to Candida genus which is influenced by various process parameters such as pH, temperature; time, nitrogen source, and yeast extract level. It is a functional sweetener as it has prebiotic effects which can reduce blood glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol level. Dental caries is an infectious microbiologic disease of the tooth that results in localized dissolution and destruction of calcified tissues. Xylitol has been shown to reduce dental caries when mixed with food, chewing gums and milk. Dental caries are prevalent in acidic pH where Streptoccocus mutans (MS) ferment resulting in demineralization of tooth, where as Streptococcus mutans cannot ferment xylitol thus it reduces MS by altering their metabolic pathway and enhance remineralization and helps arrest dentinal caries. Reduction in caries rate is greater, when xylitol is used as the sugar substitutes. This review discusses the taste acceptability of xylitol in milk as a step towards measuring the effectiveness for the reduction of dental caries.

Keywords: Xylitol, Carbohydrates, Caries, Remineralisation, Demineralization, Streptoccocus mutans

Keywords: Xylitol, Streptoccocus mutans


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Jatin Gupta, MDS Oral Medicine and Radiology

MDS Oral Medicine and Radiology

Kanupriya Gupta, MDS Oral Pathology, PhD Scholar & Senior Research Fellow, Division of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dental Sciences, BHU, Varanasi, India

MDS Oral Pathology, PhD Scholar & Senior Research Fellow,  Division of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dental Sciences, BHU, Varanasi, India


1. Van Wyk, J.P.H. Biotechnology and the utilization of biowaste as a resource for bioproduct development. Trends Biotechnol. 2001; 19(1):172-177.
2. Granstrom T.B., Izumori K. and Leisola M.A rare sugar xylitol. Part II: Biotechnological production and future applications of xylitol. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2007; 74(1):273-276.
3. Prakasham R.S., Sreenivas R.R. and Hobbs P.J. Current trends in iotechnology production of xylitol and future prospects. Curr. Trends Biotechnol. Pharm. 2009; 3(1):8-36.
4. Yoshitake J., Obiwa H., and Shimamurs M. Production of polyalcohol by Corynebacterium sp. I. Production of pentitol from aldopentose. Agric. Biol. Chem. 1971; 35(1):905-911.
5. Hyvonen L., Koivistoinen P. and Voirol F. Food technological evaluation of xylitol. In: Advances in Food Research, 1982. P. 373-403.
6. Makinen K.K. Can the pentitol-hexitol theory explain the clinical observations made with xylitol. Med. Hypotheses. 2000; 54(1):603-613.
7. Leonhardt, M. Human Adaptation to Non-digestible, Non-metabolized Carbohydrates in the Diet. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Nutrition and Foods Science, Utah State University, Utah. 2005.
8. Sreenivas R.R., Jyothi C.P., Prakasham R.S., Rao C.S., Sarma P.N. and Rao L.V. Xylitol production from corn fiber and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates by Candida tropicalis. Bioresource Technol. 2006; 97(1):1974-1978.
9. Sreenivas R.R., Prakasham R.S., Krishna P.K., Rajesham S., Sharma P.N. and Venkateswar R.L. Xylitol production by Candida sp.: Parameter optimization using Taguchi appraoach. Process Biochem. 2004; 39(1):951-956.
10. Hayes C: The effect of non-cariogenic sweeteners on the prevention of dental caries: a review of the evidence. J Dent Educ 2001; 65(10):1106-1109.
11. Roberts MC, Riedy CA, Coldwell SE, Nagahama S, Judge K, Lam M, Kaakko T, Castillo JL, Milgrom P: -How xylitol-containing products affect cariogenic bacteria. J Am Dent Assoc 2002; 133(4):435-441.
12. Lindley MG, Birch GG, Khan R: Sweetness of sucrose and xylitol. Structural considerations. J Sci Fd Agric 1976; 27(1):140-144.
13. Lam M, Riedy CA, Milgrom P, Coldwell SE, Craig R: Children's acceptance of xylitol-based foods. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2000; 28(2):97-101.
14. Birch LL, Fisher JO: Development of eating behaviours among children and adolescents. Pediatrics 1998; 10(1):539-549.
15. Yoshihiko H, Tsunenori M, Iluminada VL. X-ray microanalysis of remineralized enamel lesions by Xylitol-containing chewing gums having different types of calcium phosphate. Japanese J Cons Dent 2005; 48(5):648-655.
16. Manto DJ, Walker GD, Cait, et al. Remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions in situ by the use of three commercially available sugar-free gum. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2008; 18(4):284-290.
17. Manning RH, Edgar WM, Agalamanyi EA, Effect of chewing gums sweetened with sorbitol or a sorbitol/xylitol mixture on the remineralisation of human enamel lesion in situ. Caries Res. 1992; 26(2):104-109.
18. Suda R, Suzuki T, Takiguchi R, et al. The effect of adding calcium lactates to xylitol chewing gums on remineralization of enamel lesions. Caries. Res. 2006; 40(1):43-46
19. Cheng, K. K., Zhang, J. A., Ling, H. Z., Ping, W. X., Huang, W., Ping Ge, J. and Xu, J. M. Optimization of pH and acetic acid concentration for bioconversion of hemicellulose from corncobs to xylitol by Candida tropicalis. Biochem. Eng. J. 2009; 43(1):203-207.
20. Sanches, S., Bravo, V., Garcia, J. F., Cruz, N. and Cuevas, M. Fermentation of D-glucose and D-xylose mixtures by Candida tropicalis NBRC 0618 for xylitol production. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2008; 24(1):709-716.
21. Arrizon, J., Mateos, J. C., Sandovali, G., Aguilar, B., Solis, J. and Aguilar, M. G. Bioethanol and xylitol production from different lignocellulosic hydrolysates by sequential fermentation. J. Food Proc. Eng. 2011; 10(1):1745-1762.
66 Views | 161 Downloads
How to Cite
Gupta, J., & Gupta, K. (2018). XYLITOL ON DENTAL CARIES: A REVIEW. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 8(5), 69-72. https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v8i5.1830