Overview on Chemokine Co-Receptor-5 (CCR-5) HIV-1 Entry Inhibitors

  • Kavita Pant Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumaun University Campus Bhimtal, Nainital-263136, Uttarakhand, India
  • Anita Singh Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumaun University Campus Bhimtal, Nainital-263136, Uttarakhand, India

Abstract

In the 21st century, HIV-1 has turned into a noteworthy global challenge in medication. As per WHO report 2017, HIV is one of the deadliest diseases adding to an aggregate of 36.7 million contaminations until December 2016 among which 1.8 million were analyzed in 2016 itself. In 2016, 19.5 million individuals experienced to anti-retroviral treatment summing up to US$ 11 billion. With regards to rising resistance from anti-retroviral medication in HIV treatment, the advancement of most recent medication classes with a newer mode of action stays essential. The CCR5 co-receptor inhibitors suppress the fusion of HIV with the host cell by upsetting the connection of gp-120 protein with the CCR5 receptor. Though severalCCR5 antagonists are assessed in clinical trials, just Maraviroc has been endorsed for clinical use in the treatment of HIV infected patients. The efficacy and safety profile of CCR5 adversaries with a consideration on maraviroc are assessed here in conjunction with their use in newer and developing clinical trials. In the beginning time of HIV-1 infection in the most of patients, the HIV utilizes CCR5 receptor for passage in CD4 cell of the host (CCR5-tropic infection). Maraviroc did not decrease virus load (compared to optimized background therapy) in patients with CXCR4 or dual-tropic virus. Before prescribing a CCR5 blocker HIV tropism testing is recommended. Viral tropism is defined as the capability of the viruses to enter as well as infect the host cell, and it is based on the binding capacity of the viruses to receptors on those host cells. The co-receptor type should be recognized before the treatment started with a CCR5 blocker.

Keywords: CCR5, CXCR4, HIV-1, CD4 cell, Tropism, CYP3A4.

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Author Biographies

Kavita Pant, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumaun University Campus Bhimtal, Nainital-263136, Uttarakhand, India

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumaun University Campus Bhimtal, Nainital-263136, Uttarakhand, India

Anita Singh, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumaun University Campus Bhimtal, Nainital-263136, Uttarakhand, India

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumaun University Campus Bhimtal, Nainital-263136, Uttarakhand, India

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How to Cite
Pant, K., & Singh, A. (2018). Overview on Chemokine Co-Receptor-5 (CCR-5) HIV-1 Entry Inhibitors. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 8(4), 73-79. https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1794