BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY OF BOUGAINVILLEA GLABRA
The crude methanolic extract of Bougainvillea glabra leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of the cytotoxic activity. All the extracts of the plant were screened for their cytotoxicity by using brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. The toxicity was assessed in terms of LC50 (lethality concentration), 10 nauplii were taken into three replicates of each concentration of the methanolic leaf extract. Brine shrimps were checked for the mortality during 24 hrs period, surviving brine shrimps were counted and LC50 was evaluated. The results showed that all the extracts were showing potent toxicity to the nauplii. The LC50 values were compared to the standard potassium dichromate. It indicates that the extracts are toxic even at low doses. Further investigation is needed to study the acute and subacute toxicity of the extracts for its safe application to the humans.
Keywords: Artemia salina, cytotoxicity, Bougainvillea glabra, mortality
2. McLaughlin JL, Rogers LL, Anderson JE. The use of biological assays to evaluate botanicals. Drug Inform J 1998; 32:513-24.
3. Mishra N., Joshi S, Tandon VL, Munjal A. Evaluation of anti-fertility potential of aqueous extract of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaves in Swiss albino mice. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Drug Res., 2009; 1:19-23.
4. Bhat M., Kothiwale S.K., Tirmale A.R., Bhargava S.Y., Joshi B.N., Antidiabetic properties of Azardirachta indica and Bougainvillea spectabilis: In vivo studies in murine diabetes model. Evid.-Based Complement. Altern. Med., Vol. 2011. 10.1093/ecam/nep033
5. Adebayo J.O., Adesokan A.A., Olatunji L.A., Buoro D.O., Aoladoye A.O., Effect of ethanolic extract of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaves on haematological and serum lipid variables in rats. Biokemistri, 2005; 17:45-50.
6. Saikia H., Lama A, Effect of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaves on serum lipids in albino rats fed with high-fat diet. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Drug Res., 2011; 3:141-145.
7. Bolognesi A., Polito L, Olivieri F, Valbonesi P, Barbieri L et al., New ribosome-inactivating proteins with polynucleotide: adenosine glycosidase and antiviral activities from Basella rubra L. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. Planta, 1997; 203:422-429.
8. Edwin E., Sheeja E, Toppo E, Tiwari V, Dutt KR, Anti-diarrhoeal, anti ulcer and antimicrobial activities of leaves of Bougainvillea glabra Choisy. Ars Pharmaceutica, 2007; 48:135-144.
9. Sofowara A. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. Spectrum Books Ltd., Ibadan: Nigeria. 1993, 289-300.
10. Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods. Chapman and hall Ltd., London: U.K., 1973, 49-188.
11. Meyer BN, Ferrigni NR, Putnam JE, Jacobsen LB, Nichols DE, McLaughlin JL. Brine shrimp: A convenient general bioassay for active plant constituents. Planta Medica 1982; 45:31.
12. Almeida PA, Silva TMS, Echevarria A. Mesoionic 5-alkyl-1,3-dithiolium-4-thiolates: Synthesis and brine shrimp toxicity. Heterocycl Comm 2002; 8:593-600.
13. Anderson JE, Goetz CC, McLaughlin JL, Sufness M, A blind comparison of simple bench-top bioassays and human tumor cell cytotoxicities as antitumor prescreens. Phytochem Analysis, 1991; 2:107-111.
14. Vanhaecke P. & Sorgeloos P., International Study on Artemia. 14. Growth and survival of Artemia larvae of different geographical origin in a standard culture test. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 1980b; 3:303â€“307.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).