ANTI-CANCER HERBLE DRUGS: AN OVERVIEW
"Cancer" is the term we give to a large group of diseases that vary in type and location but have one thing in common: abnormal cells growing out of control. It continues multiplying uncontrollably and the result of this accumulation of abnormal cells is a mass of cells called a "cancer". The Plant Kingdom produces naturally occurring secondary metabolites which are being investigated for their anticancer activities leading to the development of new clinical drugs. With the success of these compounds that have been developed into staple drugs for cancer treatment new technologies are emerging to develop the area further. New technologies include nanoparticles for Nano-medicines which aim to enhance anticancer activities of plant-derived drugs by controlling the release of the compound and investigating new methods for administration. This review discusses the demand for naturally-derived compounds from medicinal plants and their properties which make them targets for potential anticancer treatments. The purpose of this brief review is to assemble current literature on some herbal drugs and to focus on their beneficial roles and drug targets in cancer therapy and chemoprevention.Keywords: 20 Herbal drugs, Cancer, Cell cycle
2) Sisodiya PS, Plant Derived Anticancer Agents: A Review. International Journal of Research and Development in Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 2013; 2(2):293-208
3) Journal of Cancer Science and Research ISSN: 2576-1447: https://www.omicsonline.org/scholarly/anticancer-drugs-journals-articles-ppts-list.php
4) Greenwell M and Rahman P.K., Medicinal Plants: Their Use in Anticancer Treatment. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2015 Oct 1; 6(10):4103â€“4112.
5) Natural health news and discoveries: Top 20 Anti-Cancer Herbs and Plants: https://naturalon.com/top-20-anti-cancer-herbs-plants/view-all/
6) Huang S, Yang N, Liu Y, Gao J, Huang T, Hu L, et al. Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit colon cancer-induced angiogenesis through suppressing the expression of VEGF and Ang1. International journal of molecular medicine. 2012 Dec; 30(6):1410-1416
7) Ramakrishnan R. et al. Anticancer properties of zingiber officinale â€“ ginger: a review: International Journal of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences. Dec 2013; 3 (5):11-20
8) Zhao F, Wang L, Liu K et al.. In vitro anti-inflammatory effects of arctigenin, a lignan from Arctium lappa L., through inhibition on iNOS pathway. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2009 Apr 21; 122(3):457-62.
9) Knott A, Reuschlein K, Mielke H et al. Natural Arctium lappa fruit extract improves the clinical signs of aging skin. Journal of cosmetic dermatology. 2008 Dec; 7(4):281-9.
10) Lin SC, et al. Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa Linne on liver injuries induced by chronic ethanol consumption and potentiated by carbon tetrachloride. Journal of biomedical science. 2002 Sep-Oct; 9(5):401-9.
11) Bryson PD, Watanabe AS, Rumack BH, Murphy RC et al. Burdock root tea poisoning. Case report involving a commercial preparation. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1978 May 19; 239(20):2157.
12) Tamayo C et al. The chemistry and biological activity of herbs used in Flor-essence herbal tonic and Essiac. Phytotherapy Reserach. 2000; 14(2):1-14.
13) Rodriguez P, Blanco J, Juste S. et al. Allergic contact dermatitis due to burdock (Arctium lappa). Contact Dermatitis.1995 Aug; 33(2):134-5.
14) Sasaki Y, Kimura Y, Tsunoda T, Tagami H et al. Anaphylaxis due to burdock. International journal of dermatology. 2003 Jun; 42(6):472-3.
15) Chan YS, Cheng LN, Wu JH, et al. A review of the pharmacological effects of Arctium lappa (burdock). Journal of Inflammopharmacology. 2011 Oct; 19(5):245-54.
16) Cancer and the cell cycle: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/cellular-molecular-biology/stem-cells-and-cancer/a/cancer
17) Cell cycle in cancer: http://www.cyclacel.com/research_science_cell-cycle.shtml
18) Heyman J, Lieven D et al. Molecular plant. Cell press science direct. 2012, 5(6):1182-1194
19) Cell cycle in cancer: http://www.cyclacel.com/research_science_cell-cycle.shtml
20) Elham S, Siamak S, Behzad B. et al. Herbal Medicine as Inducers of Apoptosis in Cancer Treatment. Advanced Pharmaceutical Bullets, 2014, 4( 1):421-427
21) Agarwal N , Majee C. , Chakraborthy G. S. et al. Natural Herbs as Anticancer Drugs. International Journal of PharmTech Research. July-Sept 2012; 4 (3):1142-1153
22) Desai A G, Qazi G N, Ganju R K et al. Medicinal Plants and Cancer Chemoprevention. Current Drug Metabolism published by national institute of health. 2008 Sep ; 9(7):581â€“591
23) American Cancer Society. Cancer facts & figures 2016. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society; 2016.
24) Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A et al. Cancer statistics, 2016. CA Cancer J Clin. 2016; 66(1):7-30.
25) Siegel RL, Miller KD, Fedewa SA, Ahnen DJ, Meester RG, Barzi A, et al. Colorectal cancer statistics, 2017. A Cancer Journal of Clinicians 2017; 67(3):177-93.
26) Javed I , Banzeer A , Tariq M. et al. Plant-derived anticancer agents: A green anticancer approach. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2017; 7(12):1129â€“1150
27) Traditional Medicinal Plants for anticancer activity: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258935441
28) Lim, Shuhui and Kaldis, Philipp. et. al. Cdks, cyclins and CKIs: Roles beyond cell cycle regulation. Development. 2013; 140(15):3079-93
29) Masui, Y. (2001). From oocyte maturation to the in vitro cell cycle: the history of discoveries of Maturation-Promoting Factor (MPF) and Cytostatic Factor (CSF). Differentiation 2001 Dec; 69(1):1-17.
30) Asperheim, M.K., Pharmacology: An Introductory Text. 9 ed, ed. R. Carter and L. Henderson. 2002, Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co. 97
31) Maram S, Mahmoud M, Zakaria A. Anticancer activity of Aloe vera and Calligonum comosumextracts separetely on hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. May 2015; 5(5):375-381
32) Garrett s. et al. Anticancer properties of research-grade hydrastis canadensis (goldenseal) and characterization of its effect on the mdr1-encoded phosphoglycoprotein efflux pump (2009) all theses. 645. https://tigerprints.clemson.edu/all_theses/645
33) Brian S, Anna M. R, Sharon G. et al. Anti-cancer effects of aloe-emodin: A systematic review. Journal of Clinical and Translational Research.2017; 3(4):1-14
34) CDK. (2014). In Scitable. Retrieved from http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/cdk-14046166.
35) CDK-activating kinase. (2015, August 5). Retrieved October 13, 2015 from Wikipedia: https://
36) Cancer biology: bio1220.biology.gatech.edu/?page_id=69
37) Cooper, G. M. (2000). The events of M phase. In The cell: A molecular approach (2nd ed.). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9958/.
38) Cyclin. (2015, July 29). Retrieved October 13, 2015 from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclin.
39) Cyclin-dependent kinase. (2015, September 14). Retrieved October 13, 2015 from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclin-dependent_kinase.
40) Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein. (2014, February 4). Retrieved October 13, 2015 from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclin-dependent_kinase_inhibitor_protein.
41) Haizhou L, Schmitz J, et al. Clove Extract Inhibits Tumor Growth and Promotes Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis. Oncology research. 2014; 21(5):247â€“259.
42) Miraj. Anti-cancer and anti-tumor activity of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch Sepid. Der Pharmacia Letter, 2016; 8(19):417-420
43) Jorge F.S., Ferreira D L. Luthria et al. Flavonoids from Artemisia annua L. as Antioxidants and Their Potential Synergism with Artemisinin against Malaria and Cancer. Molecules. 2010; 15(5):3135-3170
44) Pamela O, Saleem A, Jose-Antonio G et al. Dandelion root extracts affects colorectal cancer proliferation and survival through the activation of multiple death signalling pathways. Oncotarget. 2016 Nov 8; 7(45):73080â€“73100
45) P53 (disambiguation). Retrieved October 13, 2015 from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P53.
46) Chu XT, de la C J, Hwang SG, Hong H et al. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer. 2014; 15(12)0:4809-13.
49) Gurel E, Karvar S, Yucesan B, Eker.et al. An Overview of Cardenolides in Digitalis - More Than a Cardiotonic Compound. Current Pharmaceutical Design. 2017;23(34):5104-5114
50) Phillipson JD et al. Medicinal Plants. Journal of Biological Education (Society of Biology). 1999; 31(2):109
51) Sahpazidou D, Geromichalos GD, et al. Anticarcinogenic activity of polyphenolic extracts from grape stems against breast, colon, renal and thyroid cancer cells. Toxicology Letters. 2014; 230:218â€“224.
52) Greenwell M. and Rahman P et al. Medicinal Plants: Their Use in Anticancer Treatment. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Research. 2015; 6(10):4103â€“4112
53) Salomi MJ, Nair SC, Panikkar PR et al. Inhibitory effects of Nigela sativa and saffron (Crocus sativus) on chemical carcinogenesis in mice. Nutrition and Cancer. 1991; 16:67â€“72.
54) Abdullaev FI, Espinosa-Aguirre JJ et al. Biomedical properties of saffron and its potential use in cancer therapy and chemoprevention trials. Cancer detection and prevention. 2004; 28:426â€“32.
55) Abdullaev FI et al. Biological effects of saffron. BioFactors. 1993; 4:83â€“6.
56) Guanabana Anticancer Effects and Research Findings: http://www.superfoods-scientific-research.com/ medicinal-herbs/guanabana-anticancer-effects.html
57) Numerous Anti-Cancer and Protective Effects of Milk Thistle Extract (Silymarin): https://integrativeoncology-essentials.com/2013/01/read-about-the-numerous-anti-cancer-and-protective-effects-of-milk-thistle-extract-silymarin/
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).