NIPAH VIRUS INFECTION: A GROWING DEADLY PARAMYXOVIRUS AND THE RECENT STATUS OF POTENTIAL THERAPEUTICS IN INDIA

  • Asheesh Singh VNS Faculty of Pharmacy, Vidya Vihar, Neelbud, Nathu Berkheda, Bhopal, M.P., India-462044
  • Parul Singh Department of Pharmacy, Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur (India)-495009

Abstract

Nipah virus is an RNA virus that is part of the Paramyxovidae family that was first identified as a zoonotic pathogen after an outbreak involving severe respiratory illness in pigs and encephalitic disease in humans in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998 and 1999. Nipah virus can cause a range of mild to severe disease in domestic animals such as pigs. Nipah virus infection in humans causes a range of clinical presentations, from asymptomatic infection (subclinical) to acute respiratory infection and fatal encephalitis. Nipah virus can be transmitted to humans from animals (bats, pigs), and can also be transmitted directly from human-to-human. Fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are the natural host of Nipah virus. There is no treatment or vaccine available for either people or animals. A recombinant measles virus (rMV) vaccine expressing NiV envelope glycoproteins is proposed but is still under trial. The primary treatment for humans is supportive care. Nipah virus is an emerging threat to the human life with history of outbreaks chiefly in Bangladesh, India & Malaysia. Categorized as zoonotic biosafety level 4 (BSL4) agent depending upon the geographic locations of outbreaks, it is responsible of case mortality between 40% to 100% in both humans and animals thus one of the most deadly virus known to infect humans. The present review article cover current potential therapeutics in India against nipah virus infection.

Keywords: Nipah, Virus, Infection, Hendra virus, paramyxoviruses, Human being

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Asheesh Singh, VNS Faculty of Pharmacy, Vidya Vihar, Neelbud, Nathu Berkheda, Bhopal, M.P., India-462044
VNS Faculty of Pharmacy, Vidya Vihar, Neelbud, Nathu Berkheda, Bhopal, M.P., India-462044
Parul Singh, Department of Pharmacy, Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur (India)-495009
Department of Pharmacy, Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur (India)-495009

References

1. Lu G, Liu D. SARS-like virus in the Middle East: a truly bat-related coronavirus causing human diseases. Protein Cell 2012; 3:803-805.
2. Field H, Young P, Yob JM, Mills J, et al. The natural history of Hendra and Nipah viruses. Microbes Infect 2001; 3:307-314.
3. Leroy EM, Kumulungui B, Pourrut X, Rouquet P, Hassanin A. Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus. Nature 2005; 438: 575-576.
4. Towner JS, Pourrut X, Albarino CG, et al. Marburg virus infection detected in a common African bat. PLoS One. 2007; 2:e764.
5. Li W, Shi Z, Yu M, et al. Bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses. Science 2005; 310:676-679.
6. Chua K, Crameri G, Hyatt A, et al. A previously unknown reovirus of bat origin is associated with an acute respiratory disease in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2007; 104:11424-11429.
7. Chua KB. Nipah virus outbreak in Malaysia. J Clin Virol 2003; 26:265-275.
8. Bishop K, Broder C. Hendra and Nipah: Lethal Zoonotic Paramyxoviruses. In: Scheld WM, Hammer SM, Hughes JM, editors. Emerging Infections. Washington, D.C.: American Society for Microbiology. 2008; 155–187.
9. Li Y, Wang J, Hickey AC, et al. Antibodies to Nipah or Nipah-like viruses in bats, China. Emerg Infect Dis 2008; 14:1974–1976.
10. Hayman T, Suu-Ire R, Breed A, et al. Evidence of henipavirus infection in West African fruit bats. PLoS ONE 2008; 3:2739.
11. Anonymous. Hendra Virus, Human, Equine - Australia (07): (Queensland). Pro-MED International Society for Infectious Diseases. 2008; 20080821-2606.
12. Anonymous. Hendra Virus, Human, Equine - Australia (05): (Queensland) Pro-MED International Society for Infectious Diseases. 2009; 20090910-3189.
13. Anonymous. Nipah virus, fatal - Bangladesh (03). Pro-MED International Society for Infectious Diseases. 2008; 20080311- 0979.
14. Gurley E, Montgomery J, Hossain M, et al. Person-to-person transmission of Nipah virus in a Bangladeshi community. Emerg Infect Dis 2007; 13:1031–1037.
15. Luby S, Rahman M, Hossain M, et al. Foodborne transmission of Nipah virus, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis 2006 12: 1888–1894.
16. Harit AK, Ichhpujani RL, Gupta S, et al. Nipah/Hendra virus outbreak in Siliguri, West Bengal, India in 2001. Indian J Med Res 2006; 123:553–560.
17. Lamb R, Parks G. (2007) Paramyxoviridae: The viruses and their replication. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM, editors. Fields Virology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.2007; 5:1449–1496.
18. Bossart K, Broder C. Paramyxovirus Entry. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013; 790:95-127.
19. Bonaparte M, Dimitrov A, Bossart K, et al. Ephrin-B2 ligand is a functional receptor for Hendra virus and Nipah virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005; 102:10652–10657.
20. Negrete OA, Levroney EL, Aguilar HC, et al. EphrinB2 is the entry receptor for Nipah virus, an emergent deadly paramyxovirus. Nature 2005; 436:401–405.
21. Negrete O, Wolf M, Aguilar H, et al. Two Key Residues in EphrinB3 Are Critical for Its Use as an Alternative Receptor for Nipah Virus. PLoS Pathog 2006; 2:1227-1336.
22. Bishop K, Stantchev T, Hickey A, et al. Identification of Hendra virus G glycoprotein residues that are critical for receptor binding. J Virol 2007; 81:5893–5901.
23. Zhu Z, Bossart K, Bishop K, et al. Exceptionally potent cross-reactive neutralization of Nipah and Hendra viruses by a human monoclonal antibody. J Infect Dis. 2008; 197:846–853.
24. Yob JM, Field H, Rashdi AM, Morrissy C, van der Heide B, et al. Nipah virus infection in bats (order Chiroptera) in peninsular Malaysia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001; 7:439-441.
25. Reynes J, Counor D, Ong S, Faure C, Seng V, et al. Nipah virus in Lyle's flying foxes, Cambodia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005; 11:1042-1047.Hayman DT, Suu-Ire R, Breed AC, Mc
26. Eachern J, Wang L, et al. Evidence of henipavirus infection in West African fruit bats. PLoS One. 2008; 3:2739.
27. Li Y, Wang J, Hickey AC, et al. Antibodies to Nipah or Nipah-like viruses in bats, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008 14:1974-1976.
28. Halpin K, Hyatt AD, Fogarty R, et al. Pteropid bats are confirmed as the reservoir hosts of henipaviruses: a comprehensive experimental study of virus transmission. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011; 85:946-951.
29. Field H, Mackenzie J, Daszak P. Henipaviruses: emerging paramyxoviruses associated with fruit bats. Current Topics Micro and Immuno 2007; 315:133-159.
30. Gurley E, Montgomery J, Hossain M. Person-to-person transmission of Nipah virus in a Bangladeshi community. Emer Infect Dis. 2007; 13:1031-1037.
31. Hossain M, Gurley E, Montgomery J. Clinical presentation of Nipah virus infection in Bangladesh. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 46:977-984.
32. Lee K, Umapathi T, Tan CB. The neurological manifestations of Nipah virus encephalitis, a novel paramyxovirus. Annals of Neuro 1999; 46428-46432.
33. Lim C, Lee K, Lee W. Nipah virus encephalitis: Serial MR study of an emerging disease. Radiology 2002; 222:219-26.
34. Bloch A, Orenstein W, Stetler H, Wassilak S, Amler R. Health impact of measles vaccination in the United States. Pediatrics 1985; 76: 524- 532.
35. Orenstein W, Papania M, Wharton M. Measles elimination in the United States. J Infect Dis 2004; 189:S1-3.
36. Promed 20110526.1603 (2011) Rinderpest - worldwide: global eradication.
37. Graham B, Crowe J. Immunization against viral diseases. In: Knipe DM, Griffin DE, Lamb RA, Straus SE, Howley PM et al., editors. Fields Virology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2007; 487-538.
38. Plotkin SA. Vaccination against the major infectious diseases. C R Acad Sci III 1999; 2:943-951.
39. Wolinsky J, Waxham M, Server AC. Protective effects of glycoproteinspecific monoclonal antibodies on the course of experimental mumps virus meningoencephalitis. J Virol 1985; 53:727-734.
40. de Swart R, Yuksel S and A. D. M. E. Osterhaus. Relative contributions of measles virus hemagglutinin- and fusion protein-specific serum antibodies to virus neutralization. J. Virol. 2005; 79:11547-11551.
41. Weingartl H, Berhane Y, Caswell J, Loosmore S, Audonnet J. Recombinant nipah virus vaccines protect pigs against challenge. J Virol 2006; 80:7929-7938.
42. Guillaume V, Contamin H, Loth P, Georges-Courbot M, Lefeuvre A. Nipah virus: vaccination and passive protection studies in a hamster model. J Virol 2004; 78:834-840.
43. Giraudon P, and Wild T. Correlation between epitopes on hemagglutinin of measles virus and biological activities: passive protection by monoclonal antibodies is related to their hemagglutination inhibiting activity. Virol 1985; 144:46-58.
44. Griffin DE. Knipe D and Howley P. Fields virology, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia. 4th ed. 2001; 1401-1441.
45. Mohd Nor M, Gan C, Ong B. Nipah virus infection of pigs in peninsular Malaysia. Rev Sci Tech 2000; 19:160-165.
46. Malvoisin E and F. Wild. Contribution of measles virus fusion protein in protective immunity: anti-F monoclonal antibodies neutralize virus infectivity and protect mice against challenge. J Virol 1990; 64:5160-5162.
47. Weingartl H, Czub J, Copps Y, Berhane D, Middleton P, Marszal J, Gren G, Smith S. Invasion of central nervous system in a porcine host by Nipah virus. J. Virol 2005; 79:7528-7534.
48. Mungall B, Middleton D, Crameri G, Bingham J, Halpin K. Feline model of acute Nipah virus infection and protection with a soluble glycoprotein based subunit vaccine. J Virol 2006; 80:12293-12302.
49. McEachern J, Bingham J, Crameri G, Green D, Hancock T. A recombinant subunit vaccine formulation protects against lethal Nipah virus challenge in cats. Vaccine 2008; 26:3842-3852.
50. Pallister J, Middleton D, Wang L, Klein R, Haining J. A Recombinant Hendra virus G Glycoprotein-Based Subunit Vaccine Protects Ferrets from Lethal Hendra virus Challenge. Vaccine: 2011; 29:5623-5630.
51. Snoy PJ. Establishing efficacy of human products using animals: the US food and drug administration's "animal rule". Vet Pathol 2010; 47:774-778.
52. Rockx B, Bossart K, Feldmann F, Geisbert J, Hickey A. A novel model of lethal Hendra virus infection in African green monkeys and the effectiveness of ribavirin treatment. J Virol 2010; 84:9831-9839.
53. Geisbert T, Daddario-DiCaprio K, Hickey A, Smith M, Chan Y. Development of an acute and highly pathogenic nonhuman primate model of Nipah virus infection. PLoS ONE 2010; 5:e10690.
54. Williamson M, Torres-Velez F. Henipavirus: a review of laboratory animal pathology. Vet Pathol 2010; 47:871-880.
Statistics
21 Views | 38 Downloads
How to Cite
Singh, A., & Singh, P. (2018). NIPAH VIRUS INFECTION: A GROWING DEADLY PARAMYXOVIRUS AND THE RECENT STATUS OF POTENTIAL THERAPEUTICS IN INDIA. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 8(4), 36-41. https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v8i4.1739